288 pages, 185 illus
Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology is a comprehensive overview of the processes that control when and how volcanoes erupt. Understanding these processes involves bringing together ideas from a number of disciplines, including branches of geology, such as petrology and geochemistry; and aspects of physics, such as fluid dynamics and thermodynamics.
This book explains in accessible terms how different areas of science have been combined to reach our current level of knowledge of volcanic systems. It includes an introduction to eruption types, an outline of the development of physical volcanology, a comprehensive overview of subsurface processes, eruption mechanisms, the nature of volcanic eruptions and their products, and a review of how volcanoes affect the environment.
Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology is essential reading for undergraduate students in earth science.
Well placed to become a required course textbook in many universities. It provides a comprehensive physical description of the most important aspects of volcanology and inspires the reader to delve further into the literature. The authors should be commended for doing this so well and in such a lucid manner. (The Journal of Geological Magazine, 2009) An excellent all-round introduction to volcanology. The book is well illustrated and each chapter includes suggestions for further reading... It will help especially in training advanced undergraduate students for graduate research in volcanology." (Geographical Journal, September 2008) “This book is a powerful tool for learning volcanology, accessible and appealing, adequate both for undergraduate classrooms and the shelf of most earth scientists with broad interests." (Pure and Applied Geophysics)
PrefaceAcknowledgmentsDedicationGlossary1. Volcanic Systems1.1 Introduction1.2 Styles of Volcanic Eruptions1.3 Volcanic Systems1.4 The Structure and Aims of this Book1.5 Further Reading1.6 Questions to Think About2. Magma Generation and Segregation2.1 Introduction2.2 Rock Melting Mechanisms2.3 Volcanism and Plate Tectonics2.4 Melting and Melt Segregation in the Mantle2.5 Summary2.6 Further Reading2.7 Questions to Think About3. Magma Migration3.1 Introduction3.2 Diapiric Rise of Melt3.3 The Change from Diapir Rise to Dike Formation3.4 Dike Propagation3.5 Trapping of Dikes3.6 Consequences of Dike Trapping3.7 Summary3.8 Further Reading3.9 Questions to Think About4. Magma Storage4.1 Introduction4.2 Evidence for Magma Storage Within the Crust4.3 Formation and Growth of Magma Chambers4.4 Magma Chambers and their Impact on Volcanic Systems4.5 Summary4.6 Further Reading4.7 Questions to Think About5. The Role of Volatiles5.1 Introduction5.2 Volatiles in Magma5.3 The Solubility of Volatiles in Magma5.4 Bubble Nucleation5.5 Bubble Growth5.6 Magma Fragmentation and the Influence of Volatiles on Eruption Styles5.7 Summary5.8 Further Reading5.9 Questions to Think About6. Steady Explosive Eruptions6.1 Introduction6.2 Influence of Gas Bubbles Prior to Magma Fragmentation6.3 Acceleration of the Gas - Magma Mixture6.4 Controls on Exit Velocity6.5 Eruption Plumes in Steady Eruptions6.6 Fallout of Clasts from Eruption Plumes6.7 Unstable Eruption Columns6.8 Summary6.9 Further Reading6.10 Questions to Think About7. Transient Volcanic Eruptions7.1 Introduction7.2 Magmatic Explosions7.3 Transient Eruptions Involving External Water7.4 Summary7.5 Further Reading7.6 Questions to Think About8. Pyroclastic Falls and Flows8.1 Introduction8.2 Fallout of Clasts from Eruption Columns8.3 The Application of Eruption Column Models8.4 Pyroclastic Density Currents and their Deposits8.5 Summary8.6 Further Reading8.7 Questions to Think About9. Lava Flows9.1 Introduction9.2 Origin of Lava Flows9.3 Types of Lava Flow9.4 Lava Flow Rheology9.5 Rheological Control of Lava Flow Geometry9.6 Lava Flow Motion9.7 Lengths of Lava Flows9.8 Surface Textures of Lava Flows9.9 Effects of Ground Slope and Lava Viscosity9.10 Summary9.11 Further Reading9.12 Questions to Think About10. Eruption Styles, Scales and Frequencies10.1 Introduction10.2 Chemical Composition and Styles of Volcanic Activity10.3 Chemical Composition and Effusive Eruptions10.4 Chemical Composition and Explosive Eruptions10.5 Summary of Compositional Controls on Eruption Character10.6 Magnitudes and Frequencies of Volcanic Eruptions10.7 Elastic and Inelastic Eruptions10.8 Eruptions of Exceptional Magnitude10.9 Summary 10.10 Further Reading10.11 Questions to Think About11. Volcanic Hazards and Volcano Monitoring11.1 Introduction11.2 Types of Volcanic Hazard11.3 Hazard Assessment11.4 Monitoring Volcanoes and Short-Term Eruption Prediction11.5 Hazard Mitigation11.6 Summary11.7 Further Reading11.8 Questions to Think About12. Volcanoes and Climate12.1 Introduction12.2 Evidence for the Impact of Volcanic Eruptions on Climate12.3 Satellite Monitoring of Climate Change after Volcanic Eruptions12.4 The Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Climate12.5 Volcanoes and Mass Extinctions12.6 Summary12.7 Further Reading12.8 Questions to Think About13. Volcanism on Other Planets13.1 Introduction13.2 Volcanically Active Bodies in the Solar System13.3 The Effects of Environmental Conditions on Volcanic Processes13.4 The Moon13.5 Mars13.6 Venus13.7 Mercury13.8 Io13.9 Europa 13.10 Differentiated Asteroids13.11 Summary13.12 Further Reading13.13 Questions to Think AboutAnswers to QuestionsIndex
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Dr Elisabeth Parfitt is currently a Honorary Research Fellow at Lancaster University, UK, and has previously been a faculty member of the University of Leeds, UK and the State University of New York at Buffalo in the USA. Professor Lionel Wilson heads the Planetary Science Research Group in the Environmental Science Department at Lancaster University, UK, where he has worked for the past 37 years, and is a visiting Professor at the University of Hawai'i and Brown University in the USA. Both have focused their research on the physical processes that control volcanic eruptions.