This book provides a comprehensive and detailed source of information on the genetic and regulatory aspects of biological nitrogen fixation in free-living (non-symbiotic) prokaryotes. Biological nitrogen fixation is represented in a diverse range of microorganisms, among which Klebsiella pneumoniae serves as a paradigm for the genetic analysis of diazotrophy, which is the ability to grow with N2 as sole nitrogen source. The volume uses two major complementary approaches to the subject matter. The initial chapters use an organismic-based approach by concentrating on the well-characterized diazotrophic proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, Gram-positive clostridia, and Archea. The later chapters use a comparative process-based approach and serve as overviews dealing with different regulatory aspects, electron transport to nitrogenase, and molybdenum metabolism, across the range of organisms. Whenever appropriate, historical aspects and agricultural and ecological impacts have been taken into consideration. Each chapter contains an extensive list of references. This book is the self-contained second volume of a comprehensive seven-volume series. No other available work provides the up-to-date and in-depth coverage of this series and this volume. This book is intended to serve as an indispensable reference work for all scientists working in this and closely related fields, to assist students to enter this challenging area of research, and to provide science administrators easy access to vital relevant information.
Series Preface. Preface. List of Contributors. Dedication. 1: Historical Perspective -- Development of nif Genetics and Regulation in Klebsiella pneumoniae; R. Dixon1. Introduction2. The Early Years3. Defining the K. pneumoniae nif Genes4. The Recombinant DNA Era5. nif Gene Regulation6. CodaReferences; 2: Genetics of Nitrogen Fixation and Related Aspects of Metabolism in Species of Azotobacter: History and Current Status; C. Kennedy and P. Bishop1. Research on the Genus Azotobacter (1901-2003)2. Application of the Tools of Genetics and Molecular Biology in Species of Azotobacter3. The nif Genes encoding the Enzymes for Structure, Function, and Biosynthesis of Mo-containing Nitrogenase4. Regulation of Expression of nif and Associated Genes by Ammonium and O25. Ancillary Properties of Azotobacter Species that Aid the Efficiency of Nitrogen Fixation6. Discovery of Molybdenum-independent Nitrogenase Systems in A. vinelandii7. Molybdenum-independent Nitrogenase systems in other Azotobacter SpeciesAcknowledgementsReferences; 3: Nitrogen Fixation in the Clostridia; J.-S. Chen1. Introduction2. The Nitrogen-fixing Clostridia3. Distinctive Features of the nif Genes of the Clostridia4. Genes of Ammonia Assimilation5. Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation and Ammonia Assimilation6. Concluding RemarksReferences; 4: Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation in Methanogenic Archaea; J.A. Leigh1. Introduction2. History and Background3. Transcriptional Regulation4. Regulation of Nitrogenase Activity5. SummaryReferences; 5: Nitrogen Fixation in Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria; T. Thiel1. Introduction2. Structure of Heterocysts3. Nitrogenase Genes4. Heterocyst Metabolism5. Genes Important for Heterocyst Formation6. heterocyst Pattern Formation7. RegulationAcknowledgementsReferences; 6: N2 Fixation by Non-Heterocystous Cyanobacteria; J.R. Gallon1. Introduction2. Non-heterocystous Cyanobacteria3. Patterns of N2 FixationAcknowledgementsReferences; 7: Nitrogen Fixation in the Photosynthetic Purple Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus; B. Masepohl, T. Drepper and W. Klipp1. Introduction2. Organization of Nitrogen-fixing Genes3. The Nitrogen-fixation Regulon of R. capsulatus4. Ammonium Control of Synthesis and Activity of both Nitrogenases5. Environmental Factors Controlling Nitrogen Fixation6. Linkage of Nitrogen Fixation, Photosynthesis, and Carbon Dioxide Assimilation7. Nitrogen Fixation in other Photosynthetic Purple BacteriaReferences; 8: Post-translational Regulation of Nitorgenase in Photosynthetic Bacteria; S. Nordlund and P.W. Ludden1. Introduction2. Discovery of Nitrogen Fixation by Photosynthetic Bacteria3. In vitro Studies of Nitrogenase in Photosynthetic Bacteria4. The Protein Era5. Evidence for the Drat/Drag System in other Organisms6. Other ADP-Ribosylations7. Genetics of the Drag/Drat System8. Signal Transduction to Drat and Drat9. ConclustionsAcknowledgementReferences; 9: Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation in Free-Living Diazotrophs; M.J. Merrick1. Introduction2. General Nitrogen Control Systems3. nif-specific Nitrogen Control4. Nitrogen Control of Nitrogenase Activity5. ConclusionsReferences; 10: Molybdenum Uptake and Homeostatis; R.N. Pau1. Molybdenum Outside Cells2. Transport3. Cytoplasmic Molybdate-binding Proteins4. The ATP-binding Protein of the Molybdate Transporter5. The Regulatory Protein, ModE6. ConclustionsAcknowledgementsReferences; 11: Electron Transport to Nitrogenase: Diverse Routes for a Common Destination; K. Saeki1. Introduction2. Direct Electron Donors to the Fe Protein of Nitrogenase3. Reduction of Electron-donor Proteins for the Fe Protein4. ConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferences; 12: Prospects; J.R. Gallon and B. Masepohl; Subject Index