About this book
With an exponentially increasing human population on earth, and a finite amount of dry land, the stress put on both land and sea productivity is increasing accordingly. The use of land to produce agricultural crops uses the best land in terms of its drainage, tilth, and ease of management. There is great competition for this land as a substrate for housing and recreation by that same population for those reasons. This collection of volumes is intended to describe surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediment quality from a chemical point of view. Air quality is another environmental topic, which will not be discussed.
This work will describe water quality from the point of view of: natural quality; natural processes that lead to degraded quality; pollutants that degrade quality, both chemical and biological; radioactive elements; organic solutes including dissolved organic carbon, color-producing substances, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand; evaluation of water analyses; evaluation of water and groundwater quality; graphical methods for presenting water-quality data; methods for extrapolating water quality data; and, relationship of water quality to water use. Chemical processes are fundamental to natural phenomena such as crop growth, aqueous and marine animal and plant life, animal life in soil, and ultimately human life. Natural processes are discussed that may result in water having certain chemical and physical characteristics, such as hardness, softness, saltiness, high temperature, or dissolved gases, which require that the water be treated for potable or boiler uses. Man-made pollutants find their way into water from various sources, sewage from leaking public sewers and septic systems, agricultural chemicals, animal feedlot wastes, road deicing salt, landfills, industrial wastes, mine wastes, and brine disposal from petroleum exploration. Most organic chemicals have limited to virtually no solubility in water.
However, those that do dissolve can cause water's quality to suffer or make it totally useless or damaging to health. Organic solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, herbicides, insecticides, nematocides, and acaricides are among the substances that will be discussed in regard to their effect on water quality.
SOILS I. Soil Chemistrya. Plant macro-nutrientsi. Nitrogenii. Phosphorus iii. Potassiumiv. Sulfur, Calcium, and Magnesiumb. Plant micro-nutrientsi. Boronii. Chlorideiii. Cobaltiv. Copperv. Ironvi. Manganesevii. Molybdenumviii. Seleniumix. Siliconx. Sodiumxi. Zincxii. General Relationships of Micronutrients in Soilc. Soil colloidsi. General propertiesii. Clay mineralsiii. Silicate mineralsd. Soil organic matteri. Organic colloidse. Organic soils II. Soil Biochemistrya. Microorganisms of soilb. Enzyme activity in soilc. The carbon cycled. The nitrogen cyclee. Sulfur transformationsf. Phosphorus transformationsg. Other elemental transformationsh. Pesticide transformationsi. The occurrence of vitamins and antibiotics in soil III. Soil Fertility & Plant Nutritiona. Essential elements or nutrientsb. Cations from soil to plantsc. Phosphorus from soil to plantsd. Chelation and plant nutritione. Soil pHf. Plant tissue analysis IV. Forest & Range Soilsa. Mycorrhiza of forest soil/plant rootsb. V. Wetland Soilsa. Redox potential b. Soil pHc. Methanogenesis VI. Bioremediation & Biodegradationa. Hydrocarbons including petroleum-derivedb. Alcoholsc. Halogenated compoundsd. Etherse. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)f. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) VII. Organic Compounds in the Environmenta. Agricultural chemicalsb. Organic contaminants VIII. Radioisotopes and Soilsa. Natural radioactive elements in the biosphereb. Radioactive elements in atmospheric falloutc. Migration of radioactive elements in soil IX. Soil Degradationa. Soil erosionb. Physical degradationc. Chemical degradationd. Degradation controle. Special problems X. Nonagricultural Uses of Soilsa. Waste disposal on soilsb. Engineering propertiesc. Recreation and constructiond. Reclaimed and artificial soils GROUNDWATER I. Consolidated Aquifers a. Water contained in fractures and voidsb. Wells interconnect fractures and voidsc. Migration pathways have circuitous routes, not always predictabled. Groundwater flow is laminar, not turbulente. DNAPL deposits are difficult to flushf. Vertical hydraulic conductivity usually significantly less than horizontal hydraulic conductivity II. Unconsolidated Aquifersa. Groundwater contained in interstitial spacesb. Groundwater flow is laminar, not turbulentc. Can be modeled with most precision of any natural systemd. Vertical hydraulic conductivity less than horizontal hydraulic conductivity, but not as exaggerated as with consolidated aquifers III. Groundwater/Surface Water Interactiona. Flow can go from groundwater to surface water or vice versab. Leads to iron or manganese deposits in surface water sediments, if groundwater is enriched in these elements, and they are in their chemically reduced states in groundwaterc. Surface water pH may influence groundwater if it is higher or lower than the groundwater (with flow in either direction)d. Elements affected by oxidation/reduction conditions most affected by groundwater discharging into surface watere. With marine waters, tidal action may influence groundwater flow, raising the water table at high tide IV. Natural Groundwater Qualitya. Chemical constituents in the groundwater reflect minerals in the aquifer, sometimes from miles away from place of measurementb. Usually groundwater has low, or absent, dissolved oxygenc. The pH of groundwater in carbonate formations is usually above 7, whereas in granitic formations it can be as low as 3.0d. Alkali metals and alkaline earth metals are the most common cations in water, and sulfate, chloride, and carbonate/bicarbonate are the most common anions in water V. Sources and classes of groundwater contaminantsa. Surface impoundmentsb. Septic systemsc. Land application of biosolidsd. Landfillse. Underground storage tanksf. Waste disposal injection wellsg. Agricultural wastes, including pesticidesh. Radioactive contaminantsi. Other contamination sourcesj. Inorganic components in groundwater VI. Remediation Methodsa. Source controlb. Hydraulic controls and pump-and-treat systemsc. Soil-vapor extraction systemsd. Bioremediatione. Air spargingf. Funnel-and-gate interceptiong. Surfactant-enhanced dissolutionh. Bioventingi. Remediating NAPL sites
Olin C. Braids, Ph.D. B.A. degree Chemistry, University of New Hampshire 1960 (B.A. degree because college of Liberal Arts and bachelor's thesis), M.S. Soil Chemistry, Univ. of New Hampshire 1963, Ph.D., Soil Chemistry, The Ohio State University, 1966. Post-Doc Fellowship, Dept. of Agronomy, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (1966-67) Thirty-nine years of experience includes: Assistant Professor, Dept. of Agronomy, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (1967-1972); U.S. Geological Survey, Mineola, New York (1972-1975); Geraghty & Miller, Inc., Long Island and Tampa (1975-1989 and 1995-1999); Blasland, Bouck & Lee, Tampa (1989-1993); Eder Associates, Inc., Tampa, (1993-1995); O.C. Braids & Associates, LLC, Tampa (1999-present). Editor/Author of a number of books/chapters, including: "Chapter 6 Fats, Waxes, and Resins in Soil," Braids, O.C. and Miller, R.H., in J.E. Gieseking, ed. Soil Components Volume I, Organic Components, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975. "Chapter 13 Effects of Industrial Hazardous Waste Disposal on the Ground-water Resources," Braids, Olin C., Wilson, George R., and Miller, David W., in Robert P. Pojasek, ed., Drinking Water Quality Enhancement Through Source Protection, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 179-207, 1977. "Chapter 26 Chemical Indicators of Leachate Contamination in Groundwater Near Municipal Landfills," Saar, Robert A. and Olin C. Braids, in Chester W. Francis, Stanley J. Auerbach, and Vivian A. Jacobs eds., Environment and Solid Wastes Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal, Butterworth Publications, Boston, MA, 1983. "Chapter 3 Volatile Organic Compounds and the Ground Water Environment," Olin C. Braids, in Occurrrence and Removal of Volatile Organic Chemicals from Drinking Water," AWWA Research Foundation, Denver and KIWA, Rijswijk, The Netherlands, 1983. "Chapter 12 Ground-Water Sample Analysis," Vitale Rock J., Olin Braids, and Rudolph Schuller, in David N. Nielsen, ed. Practical Handbook of Ground-Water Monitoring, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 1991. (This book is in its first revision for later release in 2005) "Chapter 24 Groundwater Contamination from Hazaardous Wastes," Braids, Olin C., in James E. Hickey, Jr. and Linda A. Longmire eds, The Environment Global Problems, Local Solutions," Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1994. "Chapter 12 Continuing Problems in Groundwater -- MTBE,1,4-Dioxane, Perchlorate, and NDMA," Evan K. Nyer, Kathy Thalman, Pedro Fierro, and Olin Braids, in Evan K. Nyer et al. eds., In Situ Treatment Technology, 2nd Edition, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 2001. "Chapter 2 Soil," Braids, Olin C., in Jay Lehr, Marve Hyman, Tyler E. Gass, and William J. Seevers eds., Handbook of Complex Environmental Remediation Problems," McGraw-Hill Handbooks, NY, 2002. Cai, Yong and Olin C. Braids eds., Biogeochemistry of Environmentally Important Trace Elements," American Chemical Society Symposium Series 835, American Chemical Society, 2003, 436 pp.