Intensive Fish Culture approaches the topic of intensive fish farming bio-energetically in a comprehensive and logical sequence, defining principles applicable to any species reared intensively in any type of production system world wide. As such it is an essential text for students and tool for practitioners in aquaculture internationally. Arising from courses taught to a variety of personnel over a 30-year period, this important work has been tried and tested by students and professionals alike. Chapters include coverage of bioenergetics, respiration and osmoregulation, growth rates and feeding levels, fish rearing units, facility design, maximizing production, gas management, production theory, recirculation systems and waste management.
Intensive Fish Culture C. Weeks & H. Westers Table of Contents APPLYING BIOENERGETICS I-1 I.1 Choices Over Variability I-2 I.2 Intensive Fish Culture I-3 I.3 Carrying Capacity and Production I-5 I.3.2 Dissolved Oxygen (DO) I-10 I.3.3 Ammonia Nitrogen I-13 I.4 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) I-24 I.5 pH, Alkalinity I-27 Problem Solving Unit I - Flow-through Raceway Design I-34 RESPIRATION AND OSMOREGULATION II-1 II.1 Dissolved Oxygen Concentration II-1 II.2 The Uptake of Oxygen II-3 II.3 Low Oxygen Stress II-7 II.4 High Oxygen Stress II-8 II.5 Importance of Managing DO II-8 II.6 Ion Exchange Mechanism II-10 Problem Solving Unit II - Flow-through Circular Rearing Tanksand Fish Metabolic Requirements II-18 GROWTH RATES AND FEEDING LEVELS III-1 III.1 Condition Factor III-1 III.2 Feeding Levels III-5 III.2.1 Percent Weight Gain and % Body Weight III-7 III.2.2 Progression of New "Wild" Species in Relation to Growth Example: Yellow Perch III-11 III.3 Growth Models III-13 Problem Solving Unit III - Growth and Feeding Levels for a Multi-cohort Rearing Program III-23 FISH REARING UNITS IV-1 IV.1 Density Selection - A Key Design Factor IV-3 IV.2 Optimal Velocities for Fish IV-4 IV.3 Raceway Rearing Units IV-7 IV.3.1 Raceway Flow Characteristics IV-7 IV.3.2 Raceway Waste Management Concerns IV-11 IV.3.3 Raceway System Design Factors IV-13 IV.4 Round Tank Rearing Units IV-17 IV.4.1 Round Tank Flow Characteristics IV-18 IV.4.2 Round Tank Waste Management Concerns IV-19 IV.4.3 Round Tank System Design Factors IV-20 FACILITY DESIGN PROCESS V-1 V.1 Introduction V-1 V.1.1 Of primary importance V-1 V.1.2 Questions to consider V-1 V.1.3 Numbers (values) must be selected relative to specific production and design parameters V-2 V.1.4 Other choices V-2 V.1.5 Consider the fish culturist (worker) V-2 V1.6 Visitor/educational facility (managing visitors) V-3 V.2 Design Process V-4 V.2.1 The water (a somewhat ideal source to keep things simple) V-4 V.2.2 The production program V-4 V.2.3 Design V-6 V.2.3.1 Raceway design V-8 V.2.3.2 Round tank system design V-10 V.2.4 There are other options V-13 MAXIMIZING PRODUCTION THROUGH SEQUENTIAL REARING STRATEGIES VI-1 VI.1 Maximum Annual Production Models VI-2 VI.1.1 Single Cohort, Batch Culture VI-4 VI.1.2 Multi-cohort, Sequential Rearing Culture VI-5 VI.2 Effects of Growth Rates on Production VI-8 VI.3 Mortality VI-9 VI.4 Discussion VI-11 GAS MANAGEMENT IN INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE VII-1 VII.1 Aeration VII-2 VII.1.2 Degassing Using Aeration VII-3 VII.2 Oxygenation VII-4 VII.2.1 Design and Operational Characteristics of the Michigan Sealed Column VII-6 VII.2.2 How Much Oxygen? VII-8 VII.2.3 Oxygen Source and Cost VII-10 VII.3 Managing Carbon Dioxide VII-12 VII.4 Ozone In Intensive Aquaculture VII-13 VII.4.1 Gas-to-Liquid Absorption VII-15 VII.4.2 Ozone Contact Time and Concentrations VII-15 PRODUCTION THEORY OF INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS:POND, NETPEN, AND FLOW-THROUGH VIII-1 VIII.1 Aquaculture, a Diverse Activity VIII-1 VIII.2 Aquaculture, Basic Principles VIII-3 VIII.3 Aquaculture, Inputs and Outputs VIII-4 VIII.4 Production Theory VIII-5 VIII.4.1 Intensive Pond Production VIII-6 VIII.4.2 Netpen and Cage Culture Systems VIII-8 VIII.4.3 Intensive Flow-through Production VIII-10 RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS (RAS) IX-1 IX.1 Principles of RAS IX-2 IX.2 RAS Water Treatment Processes IX-3 IX.2.1 Control of Dissolved Gasses in RAS IX-3 IX.2.3 Alkalinity and pH IX-4 IX.2.4 Biofiltration IX-4 IX.2.5 Particulates IX-6 IX.3 Determining RAS Limiting Factors IX-6 IX.4 RAS Design IX-9 IX.5 Partial Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (PRAS) IX-11 MANAGEMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FISH WASTE FOR INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS X-1 X.1 Managing Wastes in Aquaculture Systems X-1 X.1.1 Intensive Pond Aquaculture Systems X-2 X.1.2 Flow-through Systems X-3 X.1.4 Netpen Aquaculture Systems X-6 X.2 Chemical Composition of Fish Manure X-6 X.2.1 Nitrogen X-7 X.2.2 Phosphorus X-8 X.2.3 Estimation of N and P in Aquaculture Effluent - a Mass Balance Approach X-9 X.3 Land Application of Fish Waste X-12 X.4 Other (Potential) Uses of Fish Manure X-14 HATCHERY DESIGN, PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER (Chapter under consideration for development) Summary of Critical Inputs Programming Input/Outputs Example Case Study Exercise Assessing Rational Design APPENDIX Notations and Units ... A1 Abbreviated List of Equations... B1 Useful Conversions ... C1