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Monitoring and Control of Macrofouling Mollusks in Fresh Water Systems

  • Introduces the terminology used in describing the macrofouling bivalves and snails
  • Describes how to monitor and control biofouling freshwater mollusks
  • Includes physiological information that can be used to develop effective control programs
  • Examines the latest threats and possible future scenarios involving several types of invasive biofouling
  • Discusses how monitoring and control methods differ for invasive clams and mussels from those of invasive snails

By: Gerald L Mackie(Author), Renata Claudi(Author)

550 pages, 22 colour & 117 b/w illustrations

CRC Press

Hardback | Dec 2009 | Edition: 2 | #183928 | ISBN-13: 9781439800508
Availability: Usually dispatched within 6 days Details
NHBS Price: £118.00 $162/€133 approx

About this book

Upon its initial publication more than fifteen years ago, Monitoring and Control of Macrofouling Mollusks in Fresh Water Systems broke new ground with its comprehensive coverage of the biology and ecology, distribution and dispersal mechanisms, physiology, monitoring, negative and positive impacts, and control of aquatic invasive species of mussels, clams, and snails. Building on this foundation, the second edition of Monitoring and Control of Macrofouling Mollusks in Fresh Water Systems includes completely revised information on species such as the zebra mussel while also covering up-and-coming nuisance species such as the quagga mussel, Conrad's false mussel, the Asian clam, and the fast-spreading golden mussel.

The Second Edition includes:
- Ten new species of mussels and snails
- International case studies on mussel fouling problems and how to cope with them
- New control and monitoring techniques
- Discussions of the latest threats and possible future scenarios

Monitoring and Control of Macrofouling Mollusks in Fresh Water Systems contains brief descriptions of the external and internal structures, examining only those features relevant to the monitoring and control of the invasive species. It discusses why the mollusks are pests, distinguishing nuisance species from native species, their habits and habitat, reproductive potential, and life cycles and population dynamics. The authors also explain how efficient dispersal mechanisms employed by the nuisance mollusks not only help them spread so rapidly to inland lakes and rivers across continents, but how they can invade virtually every part of a facility.

While many other resources contain segments of this information, none cover all areas and link them in a cohesive fashion. It is this approach that makes the understanding of potential impacts on ecosystems, industries and utilities, as well as the many human-made physical and chemical mitigants for controlling the mollusks supplied by this book so crucial for preserving the health of raw water supplies.


Morphology and Anatomy
Mode of Life
Reproduction and Life Cycle
Population Dynamics

Distribution, Dispersal Potential, and Dispersal Mechanisms
Dispersal Potential and Mechanisms

Using Physiological and Ecological Requirements and Environmental Tolerances for Assessing Risk of Invasion
Background Information on Key Variables
Assessing Survival Potential of Aquatic Invasive Bivalves
Assessing Survival Potential of Aquatic Invasive Gastropods
Assessing Potential Infestation Levels
Recommendations for Further Research

Monitoring: Searching, Finding, and Interpreting
Sampling for Larval and Adult Bivalves
Sampling for Gastropod Eggs and Adults
Early Detection of Dreissena spp. Veligers Using Molecular Methods
Monitoring for Macrofouling Control in Industry
Navigational Buoys (Navaids) as Monitoring Platforms

Impacts of Macrofoulers on Man-Made Structures
Marine Structures
Water Intakes
Pumphouse Structures
Raw Water Systems
Piping and Components of Materials of Construction
Fire Protection Systems
Drainage and Sumps
Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems
Compressed Air
Facility-Specific Impacts

Ecological, Socio-Economic, and Benefi cial Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Mollusks

Weapons of Mollusk Destruction
Preventative versus Reactive Strategies
Mitigation of Mussels through the Use of Chemicals
Chemical Options Available
Chemical Cleaning
Nonchemical Control

Domination by Chlorination
History of Chlorine
Sodium Hypochlorite
Chemistry of Chlorination
Factors Infl uencing the Effectiveness of Chlorine
Chlorination Treatment Strategies for Zebra Mussel Control
Mechanisms of Chlorine Toxicity
Nontarget Effects of Chlorine
Sublethal Effects of Chlorine
Dosage and Consumption Calculations
Main Components of the Chlorination Systems

Mitigation of Aquatic Invasive Gastropods
Giant Ramshorn Snail, Marisa cornuarietis
Channeled Applesnail, Pomacea canaliculata
Titan Applesnail, Pomacea haustrum
Island Applesnail, Pomacea insularum
Spiketop Applesnail, Pomacea diffusa
Florida Applesnail, Pomacea paludosa
Quilted Melania, T. granifera
Red-rimmed Melania, Melanoides tuberculata
Faucet Snail, Bithynia tentaculata
New Zealand Mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum
Case Studies
Zebra and Quagga Mussels in the Inland Waters of European Russia and Adjacent Countries, M.I. Orlova
Zebra Mussels: Review of Ecology and Impacts Since Invasion in Ireland, F.E. Lucy
Summary of the Distribution and Impact of the Golden Mussel in Argentina and Neighboring Countries, G. Darrigran
Response of a Major Brazilian Utility to the Golden Mussel Invasion, M.E. Rolla and H.R. Mota


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Gerald L. Mackie is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada.

Renata Claudi, an environmental scientist with over 25 years of diverse business and technical experience, currently serves as a Chief Scientist for RNT Consulting Inc.

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