Explores how the issues of transportation strategy and environmental sustainability interact in the context of megacities, especially those megacities in the developing world where the rapid rates of growth in population and economic development outpace the supply of infrastructure. While much of the current literature assumes a tradeoff between transportation and environmental sustainability, this book looks to the synergy between the two if public policies are crafted in the proper way. Transportation infrastructure capacity is typically a serious constraint in urban areas worldwide. Problems in providing additional infrastructure -- whether related to available financial resources, environmental protection, local institutional capabilities, available technology, available land and land use, social disruption, and other factors -- tend to be magnified in rapidly developing megacities.
Given the reality of these constraints, there are nevertheless several ways in which the demand for transportation and the efficient operability of the available supply can be managed successfully to relieve the pressure on existing infrastructure, accomodate the time needed to build additional capacity, and balance the competing requirement among urban mobility, economic development, and evironmental sustainability such that each area sees gains.
This book demonstrates how transportation strategy and environmental sustainability can be pursued in a comprehensive and harmonious, rather than unconnected and potentially conflicting, set of public policies. It applies lessons from several urban areas around the world (e.g., Bogota, Singapore, Mexico City, Sao Paulo), including both "success stories" and less successful "hard-won lessons," to a case study in Guangzhou. From these examples, a number of useful guidelines emerge on how the competition for resources between transportation policy and environmental sustainability can be resolved to support continued economic development in megacities.
Among the themes identified in the book that contribute to a successful, sustainable transportation strategy are the need for a comprehensive approach that is tailored to local institutional and cultural norms, the need to understand the tradeoffs among competing goals and resolve them in a balanced strategy, the importance of demand-side management as compared to traditional approaches of investment in new capacity, the usefulness of a range of options in public-private partnerships to strengthen the financial and institutional capabilities needed for sustainable transportation, and - regardless ofthe policy that is finally implemented -- the critical role of government in providing leadership and the underlying institutional framework needed to ensure success.
Preface; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1 Megacities; 1.2 Transportation Policies and Sustainability; 1.3 Outline of this Book; Chapter 2: Sustainability; 2.1 What Is Sustainability?; 2.2 Methods to Analyze Policies and Projects; 2.3 Context for This Study; Chapter 3: Achieving Sustainable Development; 3.1 Sustainable Cities; 3.2 Sustainable Development as a Resource Management Problem; 3.3 Sustainable Development as a Pollution Control Problem; 3.4 Criticisms of Economic or Market-Based Incentives; 3.5 Other Perspectives on Sustainable Development; 3.6 Sustainable Transportation as an Integrated Concept; Chapter 4: Transportation Policy and Environmental Sustainability; 4.1 Role ofTransportation; 4.2 Managing Transportation Supply; 4.3 Managing Transportation Demand; 4.4 Land-Use Planning Strategies; 4.5 Advanced Technologies: ITS; 4.6 Advanced Technologies: Alternative Fuels; Chapter 5: Public-Private Partnerships to Deliver Sustainable Transportation Projects; 5. 1 Background and Rationale; 5.2 Spectrum ofPartnership Arrangements; 5.3 Evaluation of Service Delivery Methods; 5.4 Divestiture or Denationalization; 5.5 Government's Role; 5.6 Ensuring the Public Good; 5.7 Capital Formation, Project Selection, and Investment Stimulation; 5.8 Risk Allocation; 5.9 Environmental Mutual Funds; Chapter 6: Transportation Policies: Examples and Lessons; 6.1 Introduction; 6.2 Bogota; 6.3 Singapore; 6.4 Portland; 6.5 Washington DC Metro; 6.6 Sao Paulo; Chapter 7: Guangzhou Case Study; 7.1 The City; 7.2 Policy and Regulatory Framework Regarding Sustainability; 7.3 Institutional and Financial Aspects; 7.4 Case Study: Guangzhou's Transportation Future; Chapter 8: Conclusion; References; Index.
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Fred Moavenzadeh: James Mason Crafts Professor of Systems Engineering and Civil and Environmental Engineering Director, Center for Technology and Industrial Development Director, Technology and Development Program Principal Fields of Interest: International Construction, Industrialization, Technology and Development Fred Moavenzadeh's current interests include technology and development with special focus on formulation of technological policies for socio-economic development. He is particularly interested in institutional structures required to develop a viable science and technology infrastructure that could serve the human resource development strategy of newly industrialized nations. As director of the Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development since October 1998, he is focusing on developing an institutional environment at MIT that fosters the interdisciplinary research needed for enhancement of industrial productivity and performance. CTPID's primary areas of concentration are Aerospace, Automotive, Telecommunications, Mobility, Materials Systems, Environmental Policy, and Technology and Law. CTPID emphasizes interdisciplinary research and encourages collaboration with industry and government on issues of major concern to society at large. As director of the Technology and Development Program since 1973, Professor Moavenzadeh has been involved in a wide variety of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities. In collaboration with other MIT faculty, he has taught subjects in engineering, economic, social, and political issues of concern to newly industrialized nations. He is the Editor-in-Chief of Construction Business Review, a journal for construction executives. He is the author and co-author of five books including Future Cities: Dynamics and Sustainability. He has published over three hundred professional articles. He has served in advisory capacity and consultant to several institutional agencies including World Bank, United Nations, Interamerican Development Bank.