This book is an up to date compilation of the latest knowledge on the genus Neotyphodium including the molecular biology, their effects on their grass hosts, invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores, and the plant communities in which they interact. It also includes information on the commercial uses of endophytes in livestock and turf industries.
Neotyphodium endophytes infect many species of temperate grasses and they are known as "endophytes" because their entire life cycle is spent within the plant. The significance of the Neotyphodium/grass association to agriculture is largely as a result of the alkaloid compounds that are produced in infected plants. These alkaloids cause toxicity to grazing animals.
Preface Section I: Current Trends in Neotyphodium 1 Neotyphodium Research and Application 1.1 Current Trends in the USA- Henry A. Fribourg and John C. Waller 1.2 Current Trends in Europe- Inigo Zabalgogeazcoa and Sylvie Bony 1.3 Current Trends in New Zealand- Syd Easton and Brian Tapper 1.4 Current Trends in Australia- K. F. M. Reed, C. J. Scrivener, K. A. Rainsford, and L. V. Walker 1.5 Current Trends in Japan- Koya Sugawara, Takuya Shiba, and Masayuki Yamashita 1.6 Current Trends in South America- Jose De Battista Section II: Molecular Biology of Neotyphodium 2 Biosynthesis of Ergot and Loline Alkaloids- Christopher L. Schardl and Daniel G. Panaccione Ergot Alkaloids Loline Alkaloids 3 Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Lolitrem and Peramine Biosynthetic Pathways in Epichloe festucae- Barry Scott, Carolyn Young, Aiko Tanaka, Michael Christensen, Brian Tapper, and Gregory Bryan Endophyte Synthesis of Bioprotective Metabolites Epichloe festucae as a Model Experimental System for Genetic Analysis of Endophytes Genetics and Molecular Cloning of a Peramine Biosynthesis Gene Cluster Molecular Cloning and Genetic Analysis of a Gene Cluster for Paxilline Biosynthesis Molecular Cloning and Genetic Analysis of a Gene Cluster for Lolitrem Biosynthesis 4 Gene Discovery and Microarray-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Grass- Endophyte Association -German C. Spangenberg, Silvina A. Felitti, Kate Shields, Marc Ramsperger, Pei Tian, Eng Kok Ong, Daniel Singh, Erica Logan, and David Edwards Biology of Grass - Endophyte Symbioses Fungal Genomics Gene Discovery in Epicholoe - Neotyphodium Endophytes Discovery of EST-Derived SSR and SNP Markers Fungal Transcriptomics Microarry-Based Transcriptome Analysis 5 Molecular Genetic Marker-Based Analysis of the Grass - Endophyte Symbiosis- Eline van Zijll de Jong, Kevin F. Smith, German C. Spangenberg, and John W. Forster Development and Characterization of SSR Systems Analysis of Intraspecific Genetic Diversity Phylogenetic Analysis Co-Genotyping of Grass - Endophyte Symbioses Section III: Ecology and Agronomy 6 A Hierarchical Framework for Understanding the Ecosystem Consequences of Endophyte - Grass Symbioses- Marina Omacini, Enrique J. Chaneton, and Claudio M. Ghersa A Hierarchical Approach to Endophyte Impacts on Ecosystem Functioning Endophyte Effects at the Host Plant Level Endophyte-Driven Dynamics at the Neighborhood Level Endophyte Impacts on Community-Level Dynamics Future Challenges 7 Biotic Responses in Endophytic Grasses- Alison J. Popay and Stacy A. Bonos Biotic Responses in Wild Grasses Invertebrate Responses in Forage and Turf Grasses Plant Pathogen Responses in Turf and Forage Grasses Multitrophic Interactions Factors Affecting Biotic Responses 8 Abiotic Stresses in Endophytic Grasses- D. P. Malinowski, D. P. Belesky, and G. C. Lewis Drought Stress Light Stress Mineral Stress Novel Endophytes and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Cool-Season Grasses 9 Growth and Management of Endophytic Grasses in Pastoral Agriculture- David E. Hume and David J. Barker Endophyte Contamination in Pastures Sources of Contamination with Toxic Endophyte-Infected Perennial Ryegrass and Tall Fescue Factors to Consider in Selecting the Right Endophyte Option Section IV: Animal Toxicoses 10 Managing Ryegrass - Endophyte Toxicoses- Lester R. Fletcher Confirming the Safety and Animal Productivity on AR1 Pastures Ryegrass Staggers in the Absence of Lolitrem B Managing Risk Minimizing the Impact of Endemic Endophyte in Grazing Systems 11 Interaction between Thermal Stress and Fescue Toxicosis: Animal Models and New Perspectives- Donald E. Spiers, Tim J. Evans, and George E. Rottinghaus Relationship between Fescue Toxicosis and Environmental Conditions Thermoregulatory Terminology Animal Models and Control System Terminology Application of Animal Models to Fescue Toxicosis Short-Term Responses: Bovine and Rodent Models Long-Term Responses: Bovine and Rodent Models Use of Bovine and Rodent Models to Evaluate New Approaches to Reduce the Impact of Fescue Toxicosis on Thermoregulatory Ability 12 Absorption of Ergot Alkaloids in the Ruminant- Nicholas S. Hill Structure of Ergot Alkaloids Drug Absorption in Monogastrics Partitioning Coefficients Ruminal Metabolism and Absorption of Ergot Alkaloids 13 Pathophysiologic Response to Endophyte Toxins- Jack W. Oliver Clinical Signs/Syndromes Physiological Manifestations of Endophyte Toxicosis 14 Integrating Genetics, Environment, and Management to Minimize Animal Toxicoses- John A. Stuedemann and Dwight H. Seman Impact of Endophyte-Infested Tall Fescue on Animal Response Strategies for Reducing or Alleviating the Effects of Endophyte-Infested Fescue The Role of Producer Expectations or Goals Section V: Technology Transfer and Quality Assurance 15 Endophytes in Forage Cultivars- Joe Bouton and Syd Easton Endemic Situation in Tall Fescue Endemic Situation in Perennial Ryegrass Reinfection of Elite Cultivars with Novel Endophytes Technical Requirements during Development and Commercialization of Endophytes Future 16 Endophytes in Turfgrass Cultivars- Leah A. Brilman Endophyte Benefits for Turf Challenges in Implementing Endophytic Benefits in Turf Future Research and Direction 17 Endophytes, Quality Assurance, and the Seed Trade In Eastern Australia- W. M. Wheatley Perennial Ryegrass Tall Fescue Spread of Endophyte Endophyte Viability in Seed Government Policy and Endophytes Endemic Endophyte in Seed Lines Selected Endophytes Packaging and Storage of Seed with Endophytes Endophyte-Free Seed Producer Expectations Seed Industry 18 Public Education on Tall Fescue Toxicosis- Craig Roberts and John Andrae Co-Workers and Cow-Workers: What Do Specialists Recommend, and What Will Producers Adopt? The Witch's Brew Proposed Educational Approaches
The book will be useful to researchers, educators, and extension specialists as a one-stop shopping" opportunity into endophyte biology." Thomas L. Bultman, Biology Department, Hope College, Holland, MI in Crop Science, January-February 2006. "In sum, Neotyphodium in Cool-Season Grasses is an excellent collection of recent literature that those working with pasture of turf grass will want to have on their shelf. In addition, plant and fungal ecologists who seek to learn more about the fascinating grass endophytes will find Neotyphodium in Cool-Season Grasses an excellent starting place." Thomas L. Bultman, Biology Department, Hope College, Holland, MI in Crop Science, January-February 2006.