Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increasingly appreciated as down-stream effectors of cellular damage and dysfunction under natural and anthropogenic stress scenarios in aquatic systems. This comprehensive volume describes oxidative stress phenomena in different climatic zones and groups of organisms, taking into account specific habitat conditions and how they affect susceptibility to ROS damage. A comprehensive and detailed methods section is included which supplies complete protocols for analyzing ROS production, oxidative damage, and antioxidant systems. Methods are also evaluated with respect to applicability and constraints for different types of research. The authors are all internationally recognized experts in particular fields of oxidative stress research.
Preface. Acknowledgments. List of Abbreviations. Introduction to Oxidative Stress in Aquatic Ecosystems. (Doris Abele, Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina, Tania Zenteno-Savin). PART 1: Climate Regions and Special Habitats. 1.1 Oxidative stress in tropical marine ecosystems (Michael P. Lesser). 1.2 Oxidative challenges in polar seas (Francesco Regoli, Maura Benedetti, Andreas Krell and Doris Abele). 1.3 Oxidative stress in estuarine and intertidal environments (temperate and tropical) (Carolina A. Freire, Alexis F. Welker, Janet M. Storey, Kenneth B. Storey and Marcelo Hermes-Lima). 1.4 Oxidative stress tolerance strategies of intertidal macroalgae (Jose Aguilera and Ralf Rautenberger). 1.5 Oxidative stress in aquatic primary producers as a driving force for ecosystem responses to large-scale environmental changes (Pauline Snoeijs, Peter Sylvander and Norbert Haubner). 1.6 Migrating to the oxygen minimum layer: Euphausiids (Nelly Tremblay, Tania Zenteno-Savin, Jaime Gomez-Gutierrez and Alfonso N. Maeda-Martinez). 1.7 Oxidative stress in sulphidic habitats (Joanna Joyner-Matos and David Julian). 1.8 Iron in coastal marine ecosystems. Role in oxidant stress (Paula Mariela Gonzalez, Dorothee Wilhelms-Dick, Doris Abele and Susana Puntarulo). 1.9 Oxidative stress in coral-photobiont communities (Marco A. Linan-Cabello,). Michael P. Lesser,).Laura A. Flores-Ramirez, Tania Zenteno-Savin and Hector Reyes-Bonilla). PART 2. Aquatic Respiration and Oxygen Sensing. 2.1 Principles of oxygen uptake and tissue oxygenation in water breathing animals (J.C. Massabuau and Doris Abele). 2.2 Oxidative stress in sharks and rays (Roberto I. Lopez-Cruz, Alcir Luiz Dafre and Danilo Wilhelm Filho). 2.3 Oxygen Sensing: the role of ROS (Mikko Nikinmaa, Max Gassmann and Anna Bogdanova). 2.4 Ischemia/reperfusion in diving birds and mammals: How they avoid oxidative damage (Tania Zenteno-Savin, Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina, Nadiezhda Cantu-Medellin, Paul J. Ponganis and Robert Elsner). PART 3. Marine animal models for aging, development and disease. 3.1 Aging in marine animals (Eva E.R.Philipp, Julia Strahl and Alexey A. Sukhotin). 3.2 Crustacean life cycles and oxidative stress (Maria Luisa Fanjul-Moles and Maria E. Gonsebatt). 3.3 Transfer of free radicals between proteins and membrane lipids (Brenda Valderrama, Gustavo Rodriguez-Alonso, and Rebecca Pogni). 3.4 Immune defense of marine invertebrates - the role of ROS and RNS (E.E.R. Philipp, S. Lipinski, J. Rast and P. Rosenstiel). 3.5 Attack and defense: ROS and RNS in teleost fish immune response and the co-evolved evasion of microbes and parasites (Katja Broeg and Dieter Steinhagen). PART 4. Marine Animal Stress Response and Biomonitoring. 4.1 Stress effects on metabolism and energy budgets in mollusks (Inna M. Sokolova, Alexey A. Sukhotin and Gisela Lannig). 4.2 Starvation, energetics and antioxidant defenses (Amalia E. Morales, Amalia Perez-Jimenez, Miriam Furne and Helga Guderley). 4.3 Environmentally induced oxidative stress in fish (Volodymyr I. Lushchak). 4.4 Chemical pollutants and the mechanisms of ROS generation in aquatic organisms (Francesco Regoli). 4.5 Biomarkers of oxidative stress: benefits and drawbacks for their application in biomonitoring of aquatic environments (Jose Monserrat, Rafaela Elias Letts, Josencler L. Ribas Ferreira, Juliane Ventura-Lima, Lilian L. Amado, Alessandra M. Rocha, Stefania Gorbi, Raffaella Bocchetti, Maura Benedetti and Francesco Regoli). PART 5. Methods of Oxidative Stress Detection. 5.1 Detection of reactive metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen (Matthew B. Grisham). 5.2 Role of singlet molecular oxygen in the oxidative damage to biomolecules (Graziella Eliza Ronsein, Glaucia Regina Martinez, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Sayuri Miyamoto, Marisa Helena Gennari de Medeiros and Paolo Di Mascio). 5.3 Total oxyradical scavenging capacity, TOSC assay (Stefania Gorbi and Francesco Regoli). 5.4 Spectrophotometric assays of antioxidant activities (Francesco Regoli, Raffaella Bocchetti and Danilo Wilhelm Filho). 5.5 Evaluation of glutathione status in aquatic organisms (Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Danilo Grunig Humberto Silva, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy, Florencio Porto Freitas,). Flavia Daniela Motta,). Osmar Francisco Gom).es, Marisa Helena Gennari de Medeiros and). Paolo Di Mascio). 5.6 Measurement of antioxidant pigments and vitamins in phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish (Pauline Snoeijs, Norbert Haubner, Peter Sylvander and Xiang-Ping Nie). 5.7 Carotenoid analysis and identification in marine animals (Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Glaucia Regina Martinez, and Paolo Di Mascio). 5.8 Linoleic acid oxidation products as biomarker of oxidative stress in vivo (Etsuo Niki and Yasukazu Yoshida). 5.9 The classical). methods to measure oxidative damage: lipid peroxides, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls (Volodymyr I. Lushchak, Halyna M. Semchyshyn and Oleh V. Lushchak). 5.10 Protein carbonyl measurement by ELISA (Betul Catalgol, Stefanie Grimm and Tilman Grune). 5.11 Chromatographic methods of malondialdehyde detection (Sayuri Miyamoto, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Lilian Nogueira, Marisa Helena Gennari de Medeiros and Paolo Di Mascio). 5.12 The use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) in studies of oxidative damage to lipids in aquatic systems (Gabriela Malanga and Susana Puntarulo). 5.13 The ascorbyl radical/ascorbate ratio as index of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms (Gabriela Malanga, Maria Belen Aguiar and Susana Puntarulo). 5.14 Evaluation of oxidative DNA damage in aquatic animals: comet assays and 8-oxo-7,8-dihidro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels (Jose Pedro Friedmann Angeli, Glaucia Regina Martinez, Flavia Daniela Motta, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Marisa Helena Gennari de Medeiros and Paolo Di Mascio). 5.15 Evaluation of DNA adducts formed by lipid peroxidation by-products (Camila Carriao Machado Garcia, Jose Pedro Friedmann Angeli, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Marisa Helena Gennari de Medeiros and Paolo Di Mascio). 5.16 Methods to quantify lysosomal membrane stability and the accumulation of lipofuscin (Katja Broeg and Stefania Gorbi). Further reading. Index.
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Doris Abele is a marine animal physiologist, biochemist and marine ecologist. She has specialized in oxygen radical research since 1990. She leads a research group for "Stress Physiology and Aging in Marine Invertebrates" at the Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany. Tania Zenteno-Savin is a marine biologist at the Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR) in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Her research focuses on comparative aspects of oxidative stress components in marine organisms. Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina is a marine biologist based at the University of California Merced. He studies the effects of fasting, diving and sleep apnea on oxidative stress and antioxidant metabolism in marine mammals.