About this book
With ever-increasing pressures on world agriculture in both economic and environmental terms, application of the concept of precision agriculture is one way of enabling farmers and producers to cope. 'Doing arable agriculture and horticulture more precisely' means that the use of inputs is optimised, crop yield and quality are maximised and leakage of agro-chemicals and fertilisers to the environment is minimised. These Proceedings contain peer-reviewed papers presented at the 5th European Conference on Precision Agriculture, a biennial series of conferences initiated by John V Stafford in Warwick, UK in 1997. The papers reflect the wide range of disciplines that impinge on precision agriculture - technology, crop science, soil science, agronomy, information technology, decision support, remote sensing and others.
Editorial 19; John V. Stafford; Keynotes 21; Field effect transistors in precision agriculture 23; Ernst J.R. Sudholter, Louis C.P.M. de Smet and Han Zuilhof; A review of spectroscopic methods and their suitability as analytical techniques for farm testing 31; Lars-Ove Sjaunja; Guidance and automated steering drive resurgence in precision farming 39; S. Berglund and R. Buick; Precision agriculture: the solution to control nutrient emissions? 47; J. Stoorvogel and J. Bouma; Precision agriculture: a Western Australian perspective 57; C. Fowler; Spatial variability in weeds and pests 63; Discrimination between nitrogen deficiency and fungal infection of winter wheat by laser induced fluorescence 65; I. Tartachnyk, I. Rademacher and W. Kuhbauch; Site-specific identification of fungal infection and nitrogen deficiency in wheat crop using remote sensing 73; J. Jacobi and W. Kuhbauch; Use of remote sensing within the optical and thermal spectral ranges in order to detect Septoria tritici on winter wheat 81; Herve Nicolas; Digital infrared thermography for the assessment of leaf pathogens 91; E.-C. Oerke, M. Lindenthal, P. Frohling and U. Steiner; Managing soilborne diseases in Australian field crops using precision agriculture and soil DNA tests 99; J.W. Heap and A.C. McKay; Detection and mapping of Ridolfia segetum Moris patches in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crop using remote sensing techniques 107; J. M. Pena-Barragan, F. Lopez-Granados, M. Jurado-Exposito and L. Garcia-Torres; Weed density prediction with secondary input of DEM information 115; M. Jurado-Exposito, F. Lopez-Granados, J. M. Pena-Barragan and L. Garcia-Torres. Feasibility of a real-time weed detection system using spectral reflectance 123; J. Bossu, Ch. Gee, J.P. Guillemin and F. Truchetet; Site-specific weed control using digital image analysis and georeferenced application maps: On-farm experiences 131; H. Oebel and R. Gerhards; Site specific weed control and spatial distribution of a weed seedbank 139; H. Nordmeyer; Weed identification with chlorophyll fluorescence image analysis 147; H. Nordmeyer, S. Aulich and A. Kluge; The sampling problem in weed control - are currently applied sampling strategies adequate for site-specific weed control? 155; M. Backes, D. Schumacher and L. Plumer; Describing weed patches by shape parameters 163; M. Backes, L. Plumer; Development of an image analysis system for estimation of weed pressure 169; A. Ribeiro, C. Fernandez-Quintanilla, J. Barroso and M.C. Garcia-Alegre; Vision based detection of volunteer potatoes as weeds in sugar beet and cereal fields 175; A.T. Nieuwenhuizen, J.H.W. van den Oever, L. Tang, J.W. Hofstee and J. Muller; Spatial variability in crops 183; Effect of travel speed on characterizing citrus canopy structure with a laser scanner 185; M. Salyani and J. Wei; Crop variability and resulting management effects 193; D. Ehlert and R. Adamek; Vehicle mounted sensors for estimating tiller density and leaf area index (LAI) of winter wheat 201; I.M. Scotford and P.C.H. Miller; Temporal prediction of nitrogen status in wheat under the influence of water deficiency using spectral and thermal information 209; L.K. Christensen, D. Rodriguez, R. Belford, V. Sadras, P. Rampant and P. Fisher; Measuring crop status using multivariate analysis of hyperspectral field reflectance with application to disease severity and plant density 217; A. Larsolle and H. Hamid Muhammed; Analyses of spaceborne hyperspectral and directional CHRIS data to deliver crop status for precision agriculture 227; Silke Begiebing, Heike Bach, Daniel Waldmann and Wolfram Mauser. Wheat yield population response to variable rate N fertilization strategies using active NDVI sensors 235; G.J. Schwab, E.M. Pena-Yewtukhiw, O. Wendroth, L.W. Murdock and T. Stombaugh; In-field assessment of wheat-leaf polyphenolics using the new optical leaf-clip Dualex 243; Z.G. Cerovic, A. Cartelat, Y. Goulas and S. Meyer; Application of hyperspectral canopy reflectance measurement and partial least square regression to predict within-field spatial variation in crop growth and nitrogen status before heading stage of rice 251; Hung. T. Nguyen, Jun Han Kim, Anh T. Nguyen, Jin Chul Shin, Byun-Woo Lee; Optimum waveband selection for determining the nitrogen uptake in winter wheat by active remote sensing 261; S. Reusch; Spatial variability of crop water stress in an olive grove with high-spatial thermal remote sensing imagery 267; G. Sepulcre-Canto, P.J. Zarco-Tejada, J.A. Sobrino, J.C. Jimenez-Munoz and F.J. Villalobos; Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence sensing to determine biomass and nitrogen uptake of winter wheat under controlled environment and field conditions 273; C. Bredemeier and U. Schmidhalter; Digital infrared thermography for monitoring canopy health of wheat 281; J.-H. Lenthe, E.-C. Oerke and H.-W. Dehne; On-the-go detection of plant parameters by camera vision in rape 289; K.-H. Dammer; Suitability of different crop parameters for the determination of site-specific nitrogen fertilizer demand 297; A. Link, J. Jasper and S. Reusch; Spatial relationships between soil amino sugar nitrogen, soil properties and landscape attributes 303; J.D. Williams, C.R. Crozier, D.A. Crouse, J.G. White, J. Bang, M. Duffera; A comparison of fertilizer strategies for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) based on measured yield response to applied N on morainic soils in SE Norway 311; A. Korsaeth and H. Riley; Discriminating the effect of nitrogen and other environmental stresses on spatial variability of wheat yield in Mediterranean environments 319; R. Casa, F. Pieruccetti, N. Rosati and B. Lo Cascio; Evaluation of mapping and on-line nitrogen fertilizer application strategies in multi-year and multi-location static field trials for increasing nitrogen use efficiency of cereals 327; Th. Ebertseder, U. Schmidhalter, R. Gutser, U. Hege and S. Jungert. Predicting variation in plant N-uptake in three fields using soil organic matter, texture and Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy 337; J. Wetterlind, B. Stenberg and A. Jonsson; Providing operational nitrogen recommendations to farmers using satellite imagery 345; Anne Blondlot, Philippe Gate and Herve Poilve; Change in spatial variability structure of NDVI readings related to observation scale 353; E.M. Pena-Yewtukhiw, G.J. Schwab, O. Wendroth, L.W. Murdock and T. Stombaugh; Cotton lint quality spatial variability and correlation with soil properties and yield 361; T. A. Gemtos, Ath. Markinos and Th. Nassiou; * Yield and quality; Monitoring wheat protein content on-harvester - Australian experiences 369; James Taylor, Brett Whelan, Lars Thylen, Mikael Gilbertsson and James Hassall; Prediction of within-field yield and protein variability in malting barley using canopy reflectance, thermal stress, and soil electrical conductivity 377; CG. Pettersson, M. Soderstrom and B. Frankow-Lindberg; Evaluation of an on-combine wheat protein analyzer on Montana hard red spring wheat 385; D. Long and T. Rosenthal; Uniform potato quality with site-specific potassium application 393; L. Wijkmark, R. Lindholm and K. Nissen; Evaluation of forage yield map techniques on a mowing-conditioning machine 401; F. Kumhala, M. Kroulik, J. Masek, P. Prochazka and Z. Kviz; Yield determination in a mower conditioner by means of hydraulic pressure measurements 409; K. Wild and S. Ruhland; Spatial variability in soils 415; * Soil variability; Physical background of soil EC mapping: laboratory, theoretical and field studies 417; E. Luck, J. Ruhlmann and U. Spangenberg; Using secondary information sources to improve the within-field soil textural mapping in a layered alluvial soil 425; W.A.U. Vitharana, M. Van Meirvenne and L. Cockx; Spatial and temporal variability of soil properties with respect to relief information 433; H.I. Reuter, K.C. Kersebaum and O. Wendroth. * Soil sensors; Prediction and spatial variability of soil dynamic properties in sugar cane fields of Sao Paulo State - Brazil 441; R.B. Silva, K.P. Lancas and E.E.V. Miranda; An integrated system for mapping soil physical properties on-the-go: the mechanical sensing component 449; V.I. Adamchuk and P.T. Christenson; Development of soil pH and lime requirement maps using on-the-go soil sensors 457; E.D. Lund, V.I. Adamchuk, K.L. Collings, P.E. Drummond and C.D. Christy; Evaluation of the penetration resistance along a transect 465; H. Domsch, J. Boess, D. Ehlert and H.-J. Wuttig; Comparison of geoelectrical methods for soil mapping 473; R. Gebbers and E. Luck; Mobile TDR for geo-referenced measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity 481; Anton Thomsen, Per Drosher and Flemming Steffensen; Bulk density maps as affected by implementation of a depth control system during on-line measurement of soil compaction 487; Abdul Mounem Mouazen and Herman Ramon; A real-time multi-spectral soil sensor: predictability of soil moisture and organic matter content in a small field 495; S. Shibusawa, K. Ehara, T. Okayama, H. Umeda and S. Hirako; Obtaining 'useful' high-resolution soil data from proximally-sensed electrical conductivity/resistivity (PSEC/R) surveys 503; Alex. B. McBratney, Budiman Minasny and Brett M. Whelan; Field measurements of soil pH and lime requirement using an on-the-go soil pH and lime requirement measurement system 511; R.A. Viscarra Rossel, M. Gilbertson, L. Thylen, O. Hansen, S. McVey and A.B. McBratney; On-the-go sensor for measurement of dry bulk density referring to soil compaction 521; Abdul Mounem Mouazen, Josse De Baerdemaeker and Herman Ramon; Site-specific soil properties prediction using hyperspectral signatures of topsoil coverage and underground image by real-time soil spectrophotometer 529; S.K. Roy, S. Shibusawa and T. Okayama; Topsoil mapping using hyperspectral airborne data and multivariate regression modeling 537; Thomas Selige, Urs Schmidhalter. Technology for precision agriculture 547; * Image analysis; Ground truth evaluation of 3D computer vision on non-rigid biological structures 549; M. Nielsen, H.J. Andersen, D.C. Slaughter and E. Granum; Measuring distribution accuracy of fertiliser using image analysis 557; A. Rydberg and G. Lundin; * Communication; ISOBUS compatible implements in the project AGRIX 565; T. Oksanen, P. Suomi, A. Visala and H. Haapala; Wireless sensor networks for precise Phytophthora decision support 573; D. Goense, J. Thelen and K. Langendoen; * Guidance, autosteer and robotics; Economics of Lightbar and Auto-Guidance GPS Navigation Technologies 581; T. Griffin, D. Lambert and J. Lowenberg-DeBoer; Agricultural robots: an economic feasibility study 589; S.M. Pedersen, S. Fountas, H. Have and B.S. Blackmore; A two-stage route planning system for autonomous agricultural vehicles 597; S. Vougioukas, S. Blackmore, J. Nielsen and S. Fountas; A test facility for evaluating dynamic GPS accuracy 605; Timothy Stombaugh, John Cole, Scott Shearer, Benjamin Koostra; Investigation of the accuracy of a machine vision based robotic micro-spray system 613; H.T. Sogaard and I. Lund; Robotic agriculture - the future of agricultural mechanisation? 621; Simon Blackmore, Bill Stout, Maohua Wang and Boris Runov; Development and test of an autonomous Christmas tree weeder 629; Henrik Have, Jon Nielsen, Simon Blackmore and Frans Theilby; Sensor-actuator integration in a commercial tractor for safe teleoperation and autonomous navigation 637; M.C. Garcia-Alegre, L. Garcia-Perez, A. Ribeiro, D. Guinea; Tractor-implement dynamic trajectory model for automated navigation applications 645; L. Feng, Y. He and Q. Zhang. * Variable rate application; Variable rate application Testing the viability of existing ground spread fertiliser spreaders to perform variable rate fertilisation 655; H. Lawrence, I. Yule, J. Jones and M. Hedley; Variable rate granular fertilization of citrus groves: spreader performance with single-tree prescription zones 665; A. Schumann, W. Miller, Q. Zaman, K. Hostler, S. Buchanon, G. Perkins and S. Cugati; Design of a seeder to achieve highly uniform sowing patterns 675; H.W. Griepentrog, P.T. Skou, J.F. Soriano and B.S. Blackmore; Variable dose rate application of herbicides using optical sensors 683; U.R. Antuniassi, M.S. Nery and C.A.S. Queiroz; Dynamic modeling of variable-rate granular applicator hydraulic flow control valve 691; S.A. Cugati, W.M. Miller and J.K. Schueller; Spatial analysis and mapping 699; Effect of interpolation methods and filtering on the quality of yieldmaps 701; P.O. Noack, T. Muhr and M. Demmel; Maximum likelihood variograms for efficient prediction in precision agriculture 707; R. Kerry and M.A. Oliver; Improving prediction of soil properties in precision agriculture by co-kriging with properties that are easily measured 715; R. Kerry and M.A. Oliver; Multivariate geostatistics for assessing and predicting soil compaction 723; M. Carrara, A. Castrignano, A. Comparetti, P. Febo and S. Orlando; Spatial relation between NDVI and grain yield: impact of spatial resolution and measurement device 731; O. Wendroth, A. Giebel, E. Pena-Yewtukhiw, K.C. Kersebaum, G.J. Schwab, H.I. Reuter, L.W. Murdock and T.S. Stombaugh; Yield mapping based on robust fitting paraboloid cones in butterfly and elliptic neighborhoods 741; M. Bachmaier and H. Auernhammer; Spatial variability of the Illinois soil nitrogen test: implications for soil sampling 751; Matias L. Ruffo, German A. Bollero and Donald G. Bullock. Management 759; * Soil- and crop modelling; How spatial and temporal variability can affect fertilization trial results 761; A. Castrignano, G. Buttafuoco, M. Pisante and A.V. Vonella; A potential role of permanent soil variables and field topography to reveal scale dependence and the temporal persistence of soil water content spatial patterns 769; H. Bourennane, B. Nicoullaud, A. Couturier, B. Mary, G. Richard and D. King; Predicting dynamics of Chenopodium album in a four year crop rotation using site-specific weed control 779; D. Dicke, R. Gerhards and W. Kuhbauch; Time series analysis of high spatial resolution SPOT images for wheat growth monitoring 787; Jean-Philippe Denux, Anne Jacquin, Michel Gay, Ignacio Tourino and Veronique Cheret; Long term simulation of soil/crop interactions to estimate management zones and consequences for site specific nitrogen management considering water protection 795; K.C. Kersebaum, H.I. Reuter, K. Lorenz and O. Wendroth; Using sensor information on drought stress for a site specific calibration of a wheat simulation model 803; U. Bottcher and H. Kage; * Site-specific management and decision support systems; Combining soil-landscape and spatial-temporal variability of yield information to delineate site-specific management zones 811; Y. Miao, D.J. Mulla and P.C. Robert; Topographical data for delineation of agricultural management zones 819; Petter Pilesjo, Lars Thylen and Andreas Persson; Optimum N management using site-specific management zones 827; R. Khosla, D. Inman and D.G. Westfall; Early season grain yield prediction using remote sensing and site-specific management zones 835; D. Inman, R. Khosla, M. Lefsky and D.G. Westfall; A method to combine yield and quality maps to aid decision-making 843; T. Chosa, M. Omine and H. Hosokawa; Multiple variable rate input application: a decision framework 849; B.C. English, R.K. Roberts and J. Larson; Extending Site-Specific Crop Management from individual fields to an entire farm 857; M.J. Florin, A.B. McBratney and B.M. Whelan. Local response to nitrogen inputs: advancing SSCM within Australia 865; B.M. Whelan and J.A. Taylor; FARMSTAR: an efficient decision support tool for near real time crop management from satellite images 873; B. Coquil and Jean Paul Bordes; Precision viticulture 881; Whole-of-vineyard experimentation: an improved basis for knowledge generation and decision making 883; R.G.V. Bramley, D.M. Lanyon and K. Panten; Generating benefits from Precision Viticulture through selective harvesting 891; R.G.V. Bramley, A.P.B. Proffitt, C.J. Hinze, B. Pearse and R.P. Hamilton; Obtaining grape yield maps and analysis of within-field variability in Raimat (Spain) 899; J. Arno, X. Bordes, M. Ribes-Dasi, R. Blanco, J.R. Rosell and J. Esteve; A comparison of the spatial variability of vineyard yield in European and Australian production systems 907; James Taylor, Bruno Tisseyre, Rob Bramley and Angela Reid; Combination of heterogeneous data sets in Precision Viticulture 915; J-N. Paoli, B. Tisseyre, O. Strauss, J-M. Roger and S. Guillaume; Vine parcel detection in aerial images combining textural and structural approaches 923; G. Rabatel, C. Debain and M. Deshayes; Delineation of vine fields by segmentation of high resolution remote sensed images 933; F. Michelet, J.P. Da Costa, C. Germain, O. Lavialle and G. Grenier; Precision irrigation 941; The potential contribution of precision irrigation to water conservation 943; S.A. Al-Kufaishi, B.S. Blackmore and H. Sourell; Farm-scale testing of site-specific irrigation and nitrogen fertilization for cotton production in the Southern High Plains of Texas, USA 951; J.D. Booker, K.F. Bronson, J.W. Keeling, J.P. Bordovsky, E. Segarra and Margarita Velandia-Parra; Optimal water storage location and management zone delineation under variable subsurface drip irrigation 959; Carl R. Dillon, Sayed Saghaian, Juma Salim and Murali Kanakasabai. Economic and environmental effects of precision agriculture 967; Precision agriculture improves efficiency of nitrogen use and minimises its leaching at within-field to farm scales 969; M.T.F. Wong, S. Asseng and H. Zhang; A key indicator for the assessment of spatially variable phosphorus fertilisation 977; Mats Soderstrom, Anna Nyberg, Christoffer Anderson and Borje Linden; Evaluating the benefits from precision agriculture: the economics of meeting traceability requirements and environmental targets 985; Tihomir Ancev, Brett Whelan and Alex McBratney; Keyword index 995; Keyword index 1001.