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About this book
About this book
Incorporating fundamental principles as well as up-to-date applications in soil formation, this work emphasizes the equal importance of organic and inorganic soil constituents by delineating the role of complex carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, lignins, enzymes, and humic acids in soil reactions. This edition features coverage of the relation of pe-pH with the biochemical cycle, soil air quality and soil humidity, thermodynamics in cation exchange and its connection with the quantity/intensity ratio, and more.
Definitions and Concepts of Solid Chemistry The Issue of Soil Chemistry Definition of Chemistry Concept of Soil Physical Chemistry Concept of Geochemistry Concept of Soil Chemistry Overview of Basic Chemical Principles and Units Atom and Atomic Structure Particle Accelerators or Synchrotons Elementary Particles String Theory Atomic Model of Rutherford and Bohr Mass and Weight Atomic Mass and Atomic Mass Number Atomic Number Atomic Weights Avogadro's Number Atomic Orbitals Atomic Radius Valence Equivalent Weight Chemical Units Isotopes Radioactivity Half-Life of Radioactive Material and Carbon Dating Soil Composition and Electrochemical Potentials Soil Composition Concept of Electrochemical Potentials The Nernst Equation Electrode Potentials in Redox Reactions Electron Activity rH Concept Chemical Potential Electrochemical Potential Membrane or Donnan Potential Soil Gas and Liquid Phases The Gaseous Phase Composition of Soil Air The Oxygen Revolution Soil Aeration and Aerification Characterization of Soil Air Quality Humidity of Soil Air Hydrotropism The Liquid Phase Chemistry of Soil Water Oxygen Demand of Water Soil-Water Energy Concept Plant-Soil-Water Energy Relation Law of Mass Action and Equilibrium Constant Solubility Product Dissociation of Water Dissociation of Strong Electrolytes Dissociation of Weak Electrolytes The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation The Equilibrium Constant and Ion Pairs The Exchange Constant and Ion Exchange Relationship between Equilibrium Constant and Cell or Electrode Potential Equilibrium Constant and Free Energy Relationship Equilibrium Constant and Electron Activity Activity and Standard State Debye-Hueckel Theory and Activity Coefficients Ionic Strength Colloidal Chemistry of Organic Soil Constituents The Colloidal System The Organic Components Soil Humus Carbohydrates Amino Acids, Peptides and Protein Lipids Nucleic Acids Lignins Humic Matter Colloidal Chemistry of Inorganic Soil Constituents The Clay Fraction of Soils Structural Chemistry of Clay Minerals The Identification of Clay Minerals Surface Chemistry of Soil Clays Surface Areas Origin of Negative Charge in Soil Clays Positive Charges and Zero Point of Charge The Use of I"pH in the Determination of Negative or Positive Charges Surface Potential Electric Double Layer The Zeta (I ) Potential The Electric Double Layer and Stability of Clays The Effect of Flocculation and Dispersion on Plant Growth Adsorption in Soils Types of Adsorption Adsorption Characteristics Forces of Adsorption Adsorption Isotherms Adsorption of Water Plant-Soil-Water Energy Relation Adsorption of Organic Compounds Interparticle Attraction Cation Exchange Adsorption of Cations by Soil Colloids Cation Exchange Reactions Cation Exchange Capacity The Exchanging Powers of Cations The Ionic Composition of The Exchange Complex Empirical Equations of Cation Exchange Mass Action Law Equations of Cation Exchange Kinetic Equations of Cation Exchange Thermodynamic Equations of Cation Exchange Cation Exchange Equation Based on the Donnan Theory Cation Exchange Equation of Eriksson Cation Exchange Equation According to the Diffuse Double Layer Theory Schofield's Ratio Law Fixation of Cations Base Saturation Adsorption and Exchange of Cations by Soil Organic Matter Anion Exchange Positive Charges Adsorption of Anions by Soil Colloids Phosphate Retention and Fixation Biological Fixation of Phosphate Soil Reaction and Availability of Inorganic Phosphates Prediction of Phosphate Ion Concentration According to Schofield's Ratio Law The Phosphate Potential Soil Reaction Definition and Importance Acid-Base Chemistry Application in Soils Formulation of Soil Acidity and Alkalinity Concepts of Soil Acidity The Role of Aluminum in Soil Acidity The Role of Fertilizers, Sulfur, Pyrite, N-Fixation, and Acid Rain in Soil Acidity Buffering Capacity of Soils Electrometric Measurement of Soil pH Suspension Effect in Soil pH Measurement Lime Potential The Need for Acidic Soil Reactions Soil Reactions in Saline and Sodic Soils Chemical Characterization of Saline and Sodic Soils Effect of Salinization and Sodication on Plant Growth Irrigation of Saline and Sodic Soils Salt Balance and Leaching Ratio Irrigation-Induced Salinization and Sodication Soil Chemistry and Soil Formation Concepts of Weathering Weathering Processes Stability and Weathering of Soil Minerals Weathering of Feldspars and the Silica Potential Weathering of Kaolinite and the Gibbsite Potential Stability and Phase Relationships of Soil Minerals Biological and Biochemical Weathering Soil Formation Processes or Pedogenesis Oxidation and Reduction Reaction in Soils Chemistry of Soil--Organic Matter Interaction Complex Formation and Chelation Interactions with Soil Organic Compounds Metal--Organic Complex Reaction Clay--Organic Compound ComplexesComplex Formation and Mobility of Soil Constituents Stability Diagram of Metal Chelates Complex Formation and Clay Mobility Complex Formation and Soil Fertility Appendix A Fundamental Constants Appendix B Greek Alphabet Appendix C Periodic Classification of Elements Appendix D X-ray Diffraction 21 d Spacing Conversion Table Appendix E System International (SI) Units Appendix F Factors for Converting U.S. units into SI units References and Additional Readings Index
Emeritus Professor, University of Georgia, Greensboro, USA