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Many European Union Directives seek to minimize the potential for harm to humans and the environment arising from the use of chemicals. This book takes an interdisciplinary, selective look at the effector mechanisms employed in such directives. It covers the pre-marketing use of toxicology to identify the hazardous properties of chemicals, acknowledging its shortcomings, while contrasting the scientific method with the precautionary principle in developing risk-management practices. The book then goes on to describe the use of bio-indicators, chemical analyses and mathematical modelling for prediction, or to determine the adequacy of chemical safety legislation. The environmental risk assessment of priority chemicals is described and the impact of pesticides on sustainability in agriculture is discussed from the differing standpoints of agronomy and economics.
2. Deciding on the Regulatory Limits Which Have Ensured that Exposure of People to Chemicals were without Unacceptable Risk; D.M. Pugh. 3. Evaluation of Neurotoxicity: An Example of New Approaches Needed in Risk Assessment; E. Vilanova. 4. Scientific Concepts and Uncertainties in the Identification of Ecotoxicological Thresholds of Acceptability and Danger: The Role of Biological Routes; J.V. Tarazona. 5. Simulation and Visualisation of Spatial Exposure Patterns: Intermediates in the Rhine River System; F. Koorman, et al. 6. The Precautionary Principle and Science-Based Limits in Regulatory Toxicology: The Environmental Experience: Ecosystem Protection; F. Bro-Rasmussen. 7. Hazard Assessment and Risk Assessment of Chemical Substances in the EU; J.W. Hart, et al. 8. Sustainable Development, Agricultural Practices and the Use of Plant Protection Products: The Scientific View: Life-Cycle Assessment Methodologies; M. Herrchen, W. Klein. 9. Options for the Regulation of the Long-Term Environmental Impact of Chemicals in the European Union; R. Mason. 10. Regulations and Risk Assessments of the Ecotoxicological Impact from the Use of Plant Protection Products in the European Union: An Industry View-Point; N. Punja. 11. Concluding Remarks; D.M. Pugh, J.V. Tarazona. Appendix: The Eurotox-96 Post-Symposium Discussion.