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Water scarcity affects the African, Asian, European and American continents, causing serious problems of social welfare and stability. This book of the NATO Science Series presents the state of the art of Desalination Technologies driven by Renewable Energies, highlighting the results achieved in the research field and presenting the potentialities of such technologies. Following an Advanced Research Workshop held in Tunisia from the 23rd to the 25th of February 2006 and collecting prominent scientists from more than 20 different countries, several contributions were selected from researchers, technicians, and industrial representatives, each focused on several different aspects of the use of renewable energies for desalination. Moreover, several regional overviews illustrate the actual state of RE exploitation in most of the countries interested by water scarcity and abundant availability of solar, wind and other renewable energies.
1. Solar Desalination: a challenge for sustainable fresh water in the 21st Century; H. Ettouney, L. Rizzuti
2. Development of solar desalination system concepts for irrigation in arid areas conditions; M.T. Chaibi, K. Bourouni
3. Techno-Economic evaluation of solar powered water desalination plant; G. Fiorenza et al.
4. Dynamic modeling tools for solar powered desalination processes during transient operations; D. Bogle et al.
5. A methodology to predict operation of a solar powered desalination unit; H. Ben Bacha et al. 6. Optimizing coupling small desalination units to solar collectors: a case study; K. Bourouni, M.T. Chaibi
7. Using a simulation program to optimize the operating conditions of a solar desalination plant for maximum production; A.M. El-Nashar
8. De-central water and power supply integrating renewable energy -- Technical and economic performance prediction; J. Rheinlander
9. Moroccan potentialities of using renewable energy sources for desalination; D. Zejli, A. Elmidaoui
10. Solar energy utilisation opportunities in Bulgaria; P. Gramaticov
11. Solar powered water desalination in Aral Sea Region; R. Khaydarov et al.
12. Status of solar desalination in the MENA region; M. Abu Arabi
13. The potential of renewable energies in Sicily for water desalination applications; M. Beccali et al.
14. The PSA experience on solar desalination: Technology development and research activities; J. Blanco, D. Alarcon
15. A review of desalination by solar stills; H. Aybar
16. Solar thermal desalination using the Multiple Effect Humidification (MEH)-method; H. Muller-Holst
17. Beyond pilot projects: the feasibility of immediate technology transfer from tried and tested maritime and off-shore reverse osmosis systems to stationary solar and wind powered desalination solutions; S. Thiesen
18. Solar Stills: 10 years of practical experience in commercializing solar stills worldwide; O. Kopsh
19. Solar driven desalination systems based on membrane distillation; M. Rommel et al.
20. Potential application of solar heat collectors to an EasyMED(R) thermal desalination unit; V. Renaudin et al.
21. Membrane Desalination driven by solar energy; F. Banat, H. Qiblawey
22. Small autonomous RO desalination systems powered by renewable energies. Technological advances and economics; G. Papadakis et al.
23. Desalination with wind and wave power; A.T. De Almeida, P.S. Moura
24. Desalted water from a hybrid RO/MSF plant from RDF combustion: modelling and economics; E. Fois et al.
25. Autonomous desalination units based on renewable energy systems - a review of representative installations worldwide; M. Papapetrou et al.
26. Assessment of most promising developments in solar desalination; L. Garcia-Rodriguez