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This book examines the application of stable isotopes in the reconstruction of past climatic conditions. With particular emphasis on the Quaternary, Stable Isotopes in Paleoclimatology, provides a comprehensive overview of isotope records in marine sediments, ice cores and continental archives and examines how these may be interpreted. In addition to the in-depth analysis of individual paleoclimatic archives, this book includes chapters on the fundamentals of stable isotope geochemistry and factors controlling the distribution of stable isotopes in the modern environment. The book discusses the stable isotopes of hydrogen, boron, carbon, nitrogen and silicon.
Stable Isotopes in Paleoclimatology is essential reading for advanced undergraduates and graduates in paleoenvironmental research, and will also be of value to teachers of undergraduate courses in environmental change who do not have a background in stable isotopes.
1. Fundamentals 1.1 Isotopes and their distribution 1.2 Stable isotopes and environmental reconstruction 1.3 Measurement 1.3.1 Mass spectrometry, 1.3.2 Standards and the delta notation 1.3.3 Sample preparation 1.4 Fractionation processes 1.4.1 Fractionation and its theoretical basis 1.4.2 Fractionation factors 1.4.3 Equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractionation 2. Isotope signatures in the environment 2.1 Water isotopes in the hydrological cycle 2.1.1 .Precipitation 2.1.2 Oceans 2.1.3 Lakes and other non-marine waters 2.1.4 Fluid inclusions 2.1.5 Pore waters and groundwaters 2.2 Atmosphere 2.2.1 Atmospheric oxygen 2.2.2 Carbon dioxide 2.2.3 Nitrogen 2.3 Minerals 2.3.1 Carbonates 2.3.2 Silica 2.4 Organic matter 2.4.1 Bulk organic matter 2.4.2 Cellulose (aquatic and terrestrial) . 2.4.3 Other biomolecules 3. Marine records 3.1 Marine archives 3.1.1 Marine sediments 3.1.2 Composition of marine sediments 3.1.3 Distribution of marine sediment 3.1.4 Corals 3.2 Oxygen isotopes in marine archives 3.2.1 Palaeo-temperature 3.2.2 Global ice volume 3.2.3 Palaeo-salinity 3.2.4 Water masses 3.2.5 Corals and ENSO 3.2.6 Biogenic silica 3.2.7 Sulphur cycle 3.2.8 Summary 3.3 Carbon isotopes in marine archives 3.3.1 Palaeo-productivity 3.3.2 Ocean circulation 3.3.3 Carbon storage and release 3.3.4 Palaeo-pCO2 reconstruction 3.3.5 Terrestrial vegetation 3.3.6 Summary 3.4 Nitrogen isotopes in marine archives 3.4.1 Palaeo-productivity and nutrient utilization 3.4.2 Palaeo-dentrification and nitrogen fixing 3.4.3 North Pacific Pliocene records 3.4.4 Summary 3.5 Summary 4. Ice-core records 4.1 The nature and formation of ice-core ice 4.2 Polar ice cores and temperature 4.2.1 Palaeotemperature records from isotope ratios in polar ice-core ice 4.2.2 Isotope composition of gases 4.3 Low-latitude ice cores 5. Continental records 5.1 Lakes and surface water environments 5.1.1 Lake sediment formation 5.1.2 Palaeotemperature from lake isotope studies 5.1.3 Palaeohydrological and palaeolimnological records 5.2 Speleothem records 5.2.1 The nature and formation of speleothems 5.2.2 Carbonate and fluid inclusions records in speleothems 5.3 Isotope records in groundwater archives 5.4 Tree ring records 5.5 Terrestrial organic matter 5.6 Summary 6. Development of new stable isotopes 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Silicon isotopes in marine archives 6.2.1 Introduction to silicon isotopes 6.2.2 Silicic acid utilisation 6.2.3 Summary 6.3 Boron isotopes in marine archives 6.3.1 Introduction to boron isotope 6.3.2 Palaeo-pH and pCO2 reconstructions 6.3.3 Summary 7. References 8. Index
Jonathan Holmes Mark Maslin