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About this book
About this book
Why is water such an important environmental issue? The answer is simple: without it, life on this planet could not exist. Yet, despite this fact, reckless consumption practices from a growing population are drying up the Earth's already limited water resources. Other factors, such as river and lake contamination, rising temperatures, and disproportionate geographic accessibility further contribute to the fresh water crisis. To confront this pressing concern, this enlightening guide, which covers over twenty case studies offering insights into real-world projects, uses a holistic, integrated approach to illustrate ways to preserve vital water supplies -- from green design remedies to encouraging greater personal responsibility.
This book: * Provides a basic overview of water resources, hydrology, current problems involving water resources, and the potential impact of global warming and climate change. * Covers watershed planning, Best Management Practices, and potential design and planning solutions. * Offers a concise overview of the issues affecting water use and management. * Includes a full chapter dedicated to planning issues, and a full chapter covering site planning, design, and implementation.
Acknowledgments. 1.0 Overview. 1.1 The Importance of Water Resources. 1.2 Overview of Water Resources. 1.2.1 Rivers and Streams. 1.2.2 Groundwater and Aquifers. 1.2.3 Lakes and Reservoirs. 1.2.4 Wetlands. 1.2.5 Coastal Zones. 1.2.6 Precipitation. 1.2.7 Sources of Information. 2.0 Issues Involving Water Resources in the United States. 2.1 Global Warming and Climate Change. 2.1.1 Impacts of Climate Change. 2.1.2 Addressing Climate Change. 2.1.3 Sources of Information. 2.2 Drought and Water Wars. 2.2.1 Worldwide Water Wars. 2.2.2 Southwest Water Wars. 2.2.3 Southeast Water Wars. 2.2.4 Peachtree Water Wars. 2.3 Water Demands. 2.3.1 Meeting Needs. 2.3.2 Demands in Las Vegas. 2.3.3 Uses of Water. 2.3.4 Options for Meeting Demands. 2.3.5 Water Sources. 2.4 Development Pressures. 2.4.1 Traditional Approaches to Meet Demands. 2.4.2 Growth in the South. 2.4.3 The Corps Meeting Demands. 2.5 Environmental Concerns. 2.5.1 Wadeable Streams Assessment. 2.5.2 National Rivers and Streams Assessment. 2.5.3 Large River Bioassessment Protocols. 2.6 Economic Concerns. 2.6.1 Cost of Water. 2.6.2 Infrastructure Cost. 2.6.3 Costs of Polluted Water. 2.6.4 Privatization. 2.7 Agricultural Uses. 2.7.1 Impacts. 2.7.2 Reducing Impacts. 2.8 Water Quality. 2.8.1 Water Quality Regulations. 2.9 Legal Issues. 2.9.1 Riparian Rights. 2.9.2 First in Time. 2.9.3 Groundwater, Soil Moisture, and Precipitation. 2.9.4 Direct Flow and Storage. 2.9.5 Water Law. 3. 0 Sustainable Planning Approaches for Water Resources. 3.1 An International and U.S. National Perspective on Water Resources Laws, Policies, Regulations, and Permits. 3.1.1 Federal Reserved Water Rights. 3.1.2 National Laws, Acts, and Policies. 3.1.3 Other Acts. 3.1.4 Water for America Initiative. 3.1.5 Federal Agencies Involved with Water Resources. 3.1.6 Clean Water Act. 3.1.7 Water for America Initiative. 3.1.8 Flood Management at a National Level. 3.1.9 National Drought Policy. 3.2 Planning at the State Level. 3.2.1 State Actions. 3.3 Regional Approaches to Water Management. 3.3.1 Interstate Water Commissions. 3.3.2 Regional Approaches within States. 3.3.3 Power Companies. 3.4 Planning at the District Level. 3.4.1 St. Johns River Water Management District. 3.4.2 Metropolitan North Georgia Water Planning District. 3.5 Watershed Planning. 3.5.1 Conservation Approach. 3.5.2 Watershed Assessment. 3.5.3 Tools for Water Resource Analysis. 3.5.4 Watershed Boundaries. 3.6 Water Markets and Water Supply Systems. 3.7 Wetland Planning and Wetland Banking. 3.7.1 Wetland Recommendations. 3.7.2 Wetlands Data. 3.7.3 Wetlands of International Importance. 3.7.4 National Wetlands Inventory. 3.7.5 National Data. 3.7.6 Wetland Mapper. 3.7.7 Wetlands Master Geodatabase. 3.7.8 Data at the State Level. 3.8 Stormwater Management and Erosion Control. 3.8.1 State Procedures. 3.8.2 Minimizing Erosion. 3.8.3 Controlling Pollution. 3.9 Land Use Planning and Management. 3.9.1 Land Use and Zoning. 3.9.2 Ordinances. 3.9.3 Land Use Data. 3.10 Shoreline Management. 3.10.1 Stabilization and Protection. 3.10.2 Shoreline Ownership and Access. 3.10.3 Shoreline Use Permits. 3.11 Natural Resource Protection. 3.11.1 Local to Federal. 3.12 Urban Hydrology. 3.12.1 Existing Systems. 3.12.2 Impervious Cover Model. 3.12.3 Sewage and Septic. 3.12.4 Trees in Urban Watersheds. 3.12.5 Landscape in Flux. 3.12.6 Watershed Scale. 3.13 Groundwater Protection. 3.13.1 A Sustainable Approach. 3.13.2 Data at the Local Level. 3.13.3 Data at the National Level. 3.13.4 Groundwater Modeling. 3.14 Water Outreach Efforts. 3.14.1 Demonstration Projects. 3.15 Case Studies. 4.0 Sustainable Practices for Site Planning, Design, and Implementation. 4.1 Developing Goals and Objectives. 4.2 Working with Local Stakeholders. 4.2.1 Types of Stakeholders. 4.2.2 Web-Based Communication Technologies. 4.2.3 Public Involvement Plan. 4.3 Design Process. 4.3.1 Research. 4.3.2 Inventory/Analysis. 4.3.3 Synthesis. 4.3.4 Implementation. 4.4 Lake Management Plan and Actions. 4.4.1 Lake Water Quality. 4.4.2 Water Changes. 4.4.3 Water Clarity Readings. 4.5 River, Lake, and Wetland Restoration. 4.5.1 Hydromodification. 4.5.2 Stream Repair Practices. 4.5.3 Fish Passages. 4.5.4 Constructed Wetlands. 4.5.5 Unified Stream Assessment. 4.5.6 Bridging Solutions. 4.5.7 U.S. Gulf Coast. 4.6 Low-Impact Development and Smart Growth. 4.6.1 Low-Impact Development. 4.6.2 Smart Growth. 4.7 Recreational Use. 4.7.1 Marinas. 4.8 Wildlife Management and Habitat Restoration. 4.8.1 Habitat Restoration Efforts. 4.8.2 Federal Wildlife Programs. 4.9 New Lakes, Reservoirs, and Dams. 4.9.1 Tennessee Permitting Process for New Dams. 4.9.2 Dam Removal. 4.10 Land Acquisition. 4.10.1 Fee Simple Acquisition. 4.10.2 Conservation Easements. 4.10.3 Leases, Deed Restrictions, and Covenants. 4.10.4 Purchase of Development Rights. 4.10.5 Transfer of Development Rights. 4.10.6 Land Trusts. 4.10.7 Acquisition Programs. 4.11 Best Management Practices. 4.11.1 BMP Databases. 4.11.2 Structural and Nonstructural Best Management Practices. 4.11.3 Vegetative Practices. 4.11.4 Runoff and Sediment Control. 4.11.5 Wetlands. 4.11.6 Rainwater Harvesting. 4.11.7 Rooftop Runoff Management. 4.11.8 Filtering Systems. 4.11.9 Erosion and Sediment Control Plans. 4.11.10 Controlling Runoff from Croplands. 4.12 Case Studies. 5.0 Conclusion. 5.1 Avoiding Predictions. 5.2 A Focus on Sustainability. 5.3 Revisiting Atlanta. 5.4 Legal Battles. 5.5 Addressing the Problem. 5.6 The Future. Further Reading. References Index.
James L. Sipes is Senior Associate with AECOM and the founding Principal of Sand County Studios. He is an award-winning landscape architect with more than twenty-five years of experience, and has written more than 300 articles for a variety of magazines, including frequent contributions to Landscape Architecture magazine.