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This book presents both general and comprehensive observations of unsuccessful and successful experiences in water pollution trading programs within the U.S. These experiences help in understanding the major environmental, economic and regulatory barriers that prevent the application of pollution trading in water media to become successful.
Chapter 1 explains background of water quality and history of water pollution control policy and management. Chapter 2 provides economic background regarding pollution trading and essential elements for setting water quality trading programs. Fundamental elements to understand the water pollution problem and factors needed for establishing water quality trading programs are thoroughly discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 present overall (generic) and comprehensive (specific) experiences (problems and success) regarding water quality trading with in the U.S. Finally, Chapter 5 provides suggested approaches for potential application and development of water quality trading programs.
CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND; 1.1 Definition of Water Quality and Water Pollution; 1.2 Water Quality Regulation and Policy Reviews; 1.3 Introduction to Water Quality Trading; CHAPTER 2 CONCEPT, FRAMEWORK AND CONSIDERATIONS FOR WATER QUALITY; 2.1. Concept about Tradable Permit Systems; 2.2 Framework for Establishing WQT Systems; 2.3 Considerations in Establishing Tradable Permit Schemes; CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF OBSERVATIONS IN WATER QUALITY TRADING; 3.1 Overview of Water Trading Programs in the U.S.; 3.2 Observations Derived from Trading Programs; CHAPTER 4 THE ROLE OF TRADING; 4.1 A Specific Role of Trading in WQT programs; 4.2 Important Barriers Hindering the Role of Trading; 4.3 Generic Roles of Water Quality Trading; CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION; 5.1 What distinguishes the success of one WQT program vs. another; 5.2 How well do the WQT programs within the U.S. perform?; 5.3 Why did WQT programs fail to have active trading; 5.4 What should the roles of trading be in water quality management?; 5.5 What is the suggested guidance for designing WQT programs; 5.6 What are the recommended approaches for promoting a WQT implementation; REFERENCES; APPENDIX; Appendix Summary Details of Water Quality Trading Programs; Appendix A- 1: Part I Regarding Activity, Type of Participants, Pollutants and Market Structure; Appendix A-2: Part II Regarding Size of Watershed, Number of PS, Trading Ratio, Number of Trade, and Characteristics of Participants; Appendix A-3: Part III Regarding TMDL in the Program and Cost-Saving; Appendix A-4: Summary of Analysis Results from Appendix A-1, A-2, A-3; References.