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Understanding tensile fracture in rocks provides an important key for the interpretation of many problems in structural geology. This book presents a multidisciplinary approach to tensile fracture in rocks (faulting is briefly addressed), starting with an introduction to fracture physics and progressing through tectonofractographic features, characterized both in experimental settings and in geological outcrops. Four examples of sedimentary rocks and two of granites have been chosen to demonstrate the principles and problems in fracture geology. Principles of fracture mechanics and rock mechanics are applied throughout the book, which also explores current understanding about electromagnetic radiation induced by fractures and how such radiation can be used to monitor and predict earthquakes and hazardous collapses in mines. The monograph serves not only as a manual on how to handle specific problems and their solutions in fractual geology but also as a starting point for researchers and graduate students interested in the field of rock fracturing.
From the contents: Fracture Physics: The Griffith Criterion; Nucleation; Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanisms; Dynamic Fracture; Subcritical Cracking.- Fracture Geology: Fractography and Tectonofractography; Uplift, Post-Uplift, Neotectonic and Surface Joints; Primary and Secondary Fractures.- Four Fracture Provinces in Sedimentary Rocks: The Appalachian Plateau; The Bristol Channel Basin; Zion National Park; Beer-Sheva Syncline, Israel; Comparison of Unrelated Fracture Provinces.- Jointing in Granites: The Cloos Model; Fracture in Granites from the North Bohemian Massif in the Lusatian Granodiorite Complex and the Erzgebirge; Joints in Granites from the South Bohemian Pluton; Joints in Granites from the Sierra Nevada Batholith in California; Fractographies - Quasi-Static and Dynamic Fractures; Comparative Jointing; Analysis of Fracture Velocity versus Stress Intensity Factor in the Borsov Joints; Velocity and Stress Intensity Manifestations of Fracture Propagation in Granites; New Fracture Areas in the Enchelon and Hackle Fringes on Joint Surfaces; The Index of Hackle Raggedness on Joint-Fringes; Drilling in-situ Fracture from the Rock.- Electromagnetic Radiation Induced in Fractured Materials: History of EMR Research; The EMR Model; EMR Pulses Induced by Rock Fracture; EMR and Material Elasticity; EMR and Percussion Drilling; EMR Detection; EMR Induced by Underground Rocks under Stress.- Assorted Problems in Fracture Geology: Regional Jointing; Systematic Joints; Joint-Length Distribution; Paleo-Fracture Stress; Fault Termination Zone; Fault-Joint Relationships; A New Fringe Characterization and Analysis.