At the landmark 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), solemn resolutions were made both to protect the world's biodiversity and to co-operate on managing natural forests in a sustainable and ecologically responsible way. If anything, given recent developments in issues such as climate change and poverty, the problem of protecting and sustaining forests should logically have become more important globally. Yet public interest in, and development support for, forest activities have declined and rates of forest loss remain stubbornly high. Why has this happened?
This book seeks answers to this question. It examines the often dysfunctional relationships between various members of the international forest constituency, which have so often prevented the formation of consensus. It also explores the tendency to pursue technical and politically convenient 'fixes' focused on the internal workings of the forest sector, while ignoring the overwhelming influence of external forces on the fate of forests. The result, all too often, has been programs which benefit a few powerful players and fail to provide real solutions.
PART I: ISSUES AND QUESTIONS # Chapter 1 DISAPPEARING RAINFORESTS: NEW SOLUTIONS # 1.1 Introduction # 1.2 But why another book on forests? # 1.3 The dynamics of forest loss # 1.4 Setting the scene for sustainability: valuation; and financing of the forests# Chapter 2 GLOBAL FORESTS: DEBATE AND DYSFUNCTION # 2.1 Defining the problem #1: a dysfunctional dialogue # 2.2 Defining the problem #2: sustainability and forests value; the basic issues # 2.3 The global dialogue on forests: moribunds, mercantilists, and Manicheans # Chapter 3 THE STATE OF GLOBAL FOREST RESOURCES # 3.1 The state of the world's forests # 3.2 Tropical rainforests: a key concern # 3.3 The implications of reducing deforestation # PART II : THE DYNAMICS OF FOREST LOSS# Chapter 4 ARE TRADE AND FORESTS SURVIVAL COMPATIBLE? # 4.1 Where trade is going: emerging trends # 4.2 How future demand can be met: rapidly changing supply patterns # 4.3 Are impacts of trade liberalization on forests positive? # 4.4 Can trade rules differentiate sustainably produced forest products?# 4.5 Has certification of forest management created value for forest resources?# 4.6 A distorted playing field: addressing illegal logging # 4.7 New opportunities and challenges for trade in the valuation of forests # 4.8 Conclusions Chapter 5 DEFORESTATION: CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS # 5.1 Rainforests: a Tragedy of the Commons? # 5.2 Agricultural technology and deforestation # 5.3 The impact of burgeoning plantation and grazing commodities # 5.4 Some other factors in deforestation # 5.5 Illegal logging # 5.6 Commentary on some corrective options 5.7 Separating causes and symptoms# # PART III: SUSTAINABILITY AND VALUATION OF THE FORESTS # Chapter 6 SUSTAINABILITY AND FORESTS: IDEAS AND IDEOLOGIES # 6.1 Global environmental sustainability: the shifting paradigm # 6.2 Malthus, the Club of Rome, and the environmental Kuznets curve # 6.3 Forests and the Broader Economy # 6.4 Multilateral Agreements on Global Environmental Sustainability # 6.5 A Brief Look at Multilateral Involvement in Forests # 6.6 Forest Policy in The World Bank: Ideas vs Ideologies 6.7 Developing perspectives on sustaining forests # Chapter 7 FINANCING FORESTS SUSTAINABILITY WITH CLIMATE BENEFITS # 7.1 The failure of forests sustainability: a question of perceived value # 7.2 Stored forest carbon: leading the new sustainability paradigm # 7.3 Would Rainforest Governments Finance Sustainability in Forests for Carbon? # 7.4 Financing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation # 7.4 Investing in Reduced Deforestation Ahead of REDD # Chapter 8 FINAL THOUGHTS # 8.1 The search for a new paradigm # 8.2 What does all this mean for the forests?# 8.3 Some final words # REFERENCES