This study deals with the Anoplura (sucking lice) belonging to the family Hoplopleuridae Ferris. This is the largest family under the order Anoplura and is commonly found on the hosts belonging to orders Insectivora, Lagomorpha, and Rodentia. A total of 39 species including 4 new species, belonging to 8 genera under 3 subfamilies have so far been recorded from this subcontinent. The systematics of all the species recorded is revised, furnished with necessary illustrations and presented in a consolidated form. Keys for the identification of the subfamilies, genera and species have been provided to facilitate identification. The host-parasite associations and the antiquity of hoplopleurid lice are discussed in the light of available information on evolutionary trends among the hosts.