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Third-year and postgraduate courses in physical geography, environmental studies and environmental science, particularly course units in geomorphology, climatology, pedology, biogeography, ecology; landscape ecology, GIS and remote sensing, and environmental modelling. This is the first book of its kind, focusing on topographic influences on environmental components. As a comprehensive introduction to the subject, Topography and the environment discusses the main facets of topography, including new and old ideas, models, methods, and theories, and identifies four different approaches to topography as an environmental factor: the physical ground surface; all the features of the Earth's surface, including the human-made; topographically based modelling, developed in association with geographical information systems (GIS); and the idea of place as a human construct. The authors then explore individual topographic influences on environmental elements such as climate, water, soils and plants. Accessible and wide ranging, it helps students understand the intrinsic links and the crossdisciplinary nature of physical systems and processes.
PART I - INTRODUCING TOPOGRAPHY 1. Topography, the Toposphere, and the Environment: What is Topography? What is the Role of Topography as an Environmental Factor?: Locational factors; structural factors. What is the Toposphere?: The physical troposphere; the biological troposphere. 2. Characterizing Topography Topographic Elements: Locating places; Characterizing places; Physical landscape units 'landform elements; Ecological landscape units' landscape elements. Topographic Structures: Networks; Mosaics and regions; Measuring landscape elements and mosaics. Topographic Connections: Local and regional flows; Global flows; Isolation in a fully connected world. References PART 2 - TOPOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES 3. Climate Modelling Climatic Phenomena: Modelling precipitation; Modelling temperature; Solar Radiation Modelling; Multi-climate parameter models. Altitude And Climate: Pressure and temperature; Rain and snow. Local Climates (Topoclimates): Topoclimatic features; Small-scale mechanical airflow modification; Small-scale thermal airflow modification. Synoptic-Scale Climates: Synoptic-scale airflow modification; Fall winds; Compensating winds. Topography and Climate: Global Connections: Mountain-building and global climate; Climate and the arrangement of land and sea. References. 4. Water the Hydrological Cycle. Hillslope Hydrology: Evapotranspiration; Channel Runoff. The Drainage Basin: Catchment runoff; Drainage basin morphometry. Channel Networks: Channel initiation; Open channel flow. Automatic Derivation Of Catchment Characteristics: Catchment boundary and stream network delineation; Derivation of the other hydrological parameters; Accuracy of derived catchment attributes. The Global Cycle: Global hydrological change; Hydrology and climatic change. References. 5. Soil and Sediments Soil and Altitude: Altitudinal soil sequences; Altitudinal geomorphic zones. Soil and Aspect. Soil and Slopes: Soils and slope form: Soils and hillslope hydrology: current processes; Soils and hillslope hydrology: reconstruction techniques; Sediments and hillslopes. Soil Landscapes: Dynamic soil- landscape models; Soil processes and soil types in landscapes; Sediments in landscapes. Soil Erosion Modelling: Background to soil erosion models; Empirical soil erosion models; Non-spatial, physically based soil erosion models; Spatial, physically based soil erosion models. References. 6. Animals and Plants Life andAltitude: Altitudinal floral zones; Altitudinal faunal zones; Tree-lines; Plant species and altitude; Animal species and altitude. Life and Land Form: Aspect and plants; Aspect and animals; Slopes; Microtopographic influences of animals and plants; Surfaces; Integrated topographic effects. Landscape Patches: Patch size; Patch shape; Patch edges. Corridors: Roads and trails; Powerlines; Hedgerows and other wooded strips; Stream and river corridors. Networks: Tree networks and life; Corridor and circuit networks. Mosaics: Landscape structure and connectivity; Landscape properties. References. 7. Humans Settlements: The nature of settlement; Physical influences; Cultural, social, and economic influences. Routes: Maintaining routes; Environmental impacts of routes. Agriculture: Aspect; Shelterbelts; Land-use catenas; Agricultural mosaics. Environmental Destruction And Conservation: Reserve distribution; Reserve shape; Conservation corridors; Reserve edges; Reserve functioning; Regional reserve setting. Human Individuals and Populations: Terrain and Military History; Topography, Climatic Change, And Tourism; Agroforestry and Ecosystem Management. References.