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Addresses the perceived need for ecology to be predictive, and to consider large-scale systems. This book argues that the conventional `levels' (ecosystems, landscapes, communities, populations, organisms) are not levels in themselves but criteria for observation.
- The principles of ecological integration
- the landscape criterion
- the ecosystem criterion
- the community criterion
- the organism criterion
- the population criterion
- the biome and biosphere criteria
- management of ecological systems
- a unified approach to basic research
Timothy F. H. Allen is professor of botany at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Thomas W. Hoekstra is assistant director for research at the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.