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About this book
About this book
Considers how wetlands are created naturally and how they sustain themselves. This valuable book goes on to describe how the flora and fauna of these unique habitats are ideally adapted to their environment - and how the ecosystem copes with pollutants and climate change. The impact of human activity such as farming, building and recreation is also assessed. Concludes with conservation and conservation techniques.
INTRODUCTION Wetland basics Ideas on wetlands: fact and fable The creations of the waters WETLANDS MATTER Introduction, and the World Charter for Nature Values Considerations of values Wetland to Dryland: the changing from fish and fowl to grain and vegetable Wetland products HOW WETLANDS WORK Introduction Integrating wetland processes Wetland landscapes Biodiversity IN WETLAND WILDS Continuities and discontinuities Geomorphological, hydromorphic, and similar classifications Vegetation classification Wetlands in the landscape Bog Marsh Reedswamp Fens Tall herb and short herb communities Grassland Woodland THE ANIMALS Introduction Invertebrates Fish Birds Mammals Reptiles Amphibia Microorganisms and fungi THE WATERS OF THE WETLANDS Water in the landscape Soil and drainage Vertical fluctuations Sideways movement Vegetation as an indicator of water regime Case studies Discussion CHEMICAL TYPES AND VEGETATION TYPES Introduction Chemical types in the landscape Plants as indicator of nutrient regime Case studies Chemical impact THE POWER TO PURIFY Principles and definitions How fens, marshes and reedswamps (natural and constructed wetland) act chemically Purification Buffer strips PHRAGMITES: A STUDY IN PLANT BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN USE The plant unit The seasonal cycle The seedling and young plant The advancing plant Chemistry and competition The water The thatching reed The maintaining of the stand Conclusion THE SILENT BATTLEFIELD: VEGETATION CHANGES Vegetation develops Sallow (Salix cinerea) carr invasion Carex paniculata and Phragmites australis Galium aparine (goosegrass) in tall-herb fen vegetation The Schoenus nigricans community Schoenus nigricans and Molinia caerulea Schoenus nigricans andCladium mariscus Phragmites made sparse in three other vegetation types Reedswamp invasion of open water A native and an introduced grass in the Camargue, France Phalaris arundinacca and Urtica dioica in flood meadows, River Luznice, Czech Republic Typha spp. In North America Cladium mariscoides and Typha jamaicense in the Everglades, Florida Myrica gale, Cladium mariscus and the keeper Combined ills Conclusions THREATS AND LOSSES, PAST AND PRESENT The major dangers Management and loss of Broadland over time in East Anglia Deterioration of waterfowl and wet grassland Reedswamp dieback CONSERVATION Introduction Principles of conservation