Geoscientists worldwide are developing and applying methodologies to estimate geologic hazards associated with the siting of nuclear facilities. Understanding such hazards, particularly in the context of the long functional lifetimes of many nuclear facilities, is challenging. This book documents the current state-of-the-art in volcanic and tectonic hazard assessment for proposed nuclear facilities, which must be located in areas where the risks associated with geologic processes are quantifiable and demonstrably low.
Specific topics include overviews of volcanic and tectonic processes, the history of development of hazard assessment methodologies, description of current techniques for characterizing hazards and development of probabilistic methods for estimating risks.
1. Tectonic events and nuclear facilities N. A. Chapman, H. Tsuchi and K. Kitayama
2. The nature of tectonic hazards M. Cloos
3. The nature of volcanism C. B. Connor, R. S. J. Sparks, M. Díez, A. C. M. Volentik and S. C. P. Pearson
4. Tectonic uplift and subsidence N. Litchfield, Y. Ota and D. Merritts
5. Glacial isostatic adjustment: implications for glacially induced faulting and nuclear waste repositories B. Lund and J. O. Näslund
6. Using global positioning system data to assess tectonic hazards L. M. Wallace, J. Beavan, S. Miura and R. McCaffrey
7. Tectonic setting of volcanic centers in subduction zones:
3D structure of mantle wedge and arc crust Y. Tamura, J. Nakajima, S. Kodaira and A. Hasegawa
8. Conceptual model for small-volume alkali basalt petrogenesis: implications for volcanic hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository F. J. Spera and S. J. Fowler
9. Aspects of volcanic hazard assessment for the Bataan nuclear power plant, Luzon Peninsula, Philippines A. C. M. Volentik, C. B. Connor, L. J. Connor and C. Bonadonna
10. Multidisciplinary probabilistic tectonic hazard analysis M. Stirling, K. Berryman, L. Wallace, N. Litchfield, J. Beavan and W. Smith
11. Tsunami hazard assessment W. Power and G. Downes
12. Regional-scale volcanology in support of site-specific investigations H. Kondo
13. Exploring long-term hazards using a Quaternary volcano database S. H. Mahoney, R. S. J. Sparks, L. J. Connor and C. B. Connor
14. Estimating spatial density with kernel methods C. B. Connor and L. J. Connor
15. Cox process models for the estimation of long-term volcanic hazards O. Jaquet and C. Lantuéjoul
16. Spatial distribution of eruptive centers about the Idaho National Laboratory P. H. Wetmore, S. S. Hughes, L. J. Connor and M. L. Caplinger
17. Modeling the flow of basaltic magma into subsurface nuclear facilities T. Menand, J. C. Phillips, R. S. J. Sparks and A. W. Woods
18. Intrusion dynamics for volatile-poor basaltic magma into subsurface nuclear installations A.-M. Lejeune, B. E. Hill, A. W. Woods, R. S. J. Sparks and C. B. Connor
19. Volcanic risk assessment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA: integration of geophysics, geology and modeling G. A. Valentine and F. V. Perry
20. Geological issues in practice: experience in siting US nuclear facilities L. Reiter
21. Characterizing active tectonic structures for nuclear facilities in Japan D. Inoue
22. Issues for coastal sites I. G. McKinley and W. R. Alexander
23. Stable tectonic settings: designing site investigations to establish the tectonic basis for design and safety evaluation of geological repositories in Scandanavia T. McEwen and J. Anderson
24. The impact of subsidence, uplift and erosion of geological repositories for radioactive wastes I. G. McKinley and N. A. Chapman
25. Recommendations for assessing volcanic hazards at sites of nuclear installations B. E. Hill, W. P. Aspinall, C. B. Connor, J.-C. Komorowski and S. Nakada
26. Formal expert assessment in probabilistic seismic and volcanic hazard assessment K. J. Coppersmith, K. E. Jenni, R. C. Perman and R. R. Youngs
Charles B. Connor is a Professor and Chairman of the Geology Department at the University of South Florida. He has worked on assessment of volcanic hazards at nuclear facilities since 1992, in association with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Nuclear Waste Organization of Japan. These professional activities have included developing the US Nuclear Regulatory scientific program for assessment of volcanic hazards at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, chairing of the committee to develop IAEA safety guidance for nuclear power plants, and developing safety guidelines for nuclear installations in Japan. In addition, he served on the US National Research Council commission to review the US Geological Survey volcanic hazards program for the National Academy of Sciences.
Neil A. Chapman is Chairman, ITC School of Underground Waste Storage and Disposal, Switzerland; Research Professor of Environmental Geology, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, UK; Programme Director, Arius Association, Switzerland; an independent consultant. He has worked for more than 30 years on the scientific and strategic issues of the nuclear industry and radioactive wastes, for industrial, governmental and international organisations and agencies worldwide. This has involved participation in many national and international advisory committees, in the management of internationally funded projects and as a visiting expert. He is currently Chairman of the INSITE site investigation overview group for the Swedish regulatory authority, SSM, and a member of the International Technical Advisory Committee (ITAC) of the Japanese radioactive waste management organisation (NUMO).
Laura J. Connor is a computational scientist and Research Associate in the Department of Geology at the University of South Florida. Her work has focused on computational methods in geologic hazard assessment and geophysical research, which have highlighted new methods for optimization of volcanic hazard models, uncertainty assessment for volcanic hazard models, and applications in real-time monitoring of geophysical processes. She has authored numerous codes, including the probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment codes currently in use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Nuclear Waste Organization of Japan. She is co-editor of Statistics in Volcanology, published by the Geological Society of London.
"[...] a comprehensive look at the current state of practice in hazard assessment for a range of natural processes. For those entering the field of natural hazards assessment for nuclear facilities, this book will provide useful guidance. For those experienced in the field, the book will be a valuable reference and a storehouse of readily available information. The introductory chapters would be particularly useful for graduate courses on natural hazards assessment, both for the information on assessment methodologies and case histories, and for the reviews of tectonic and volcanic processes with emphasis on those processes that have impact on nuclear safety. [...] For anyone interested in the subject, a careful reading of the book will be an educational exercise, a valuable review, and almost certain to provide some unexpected insights."
– Richard P. Smith, Environmental & Engineering Geoscience