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About this book
About this book
Analyzes the retentivity and refraction of water flow in soils. Describes general features of preferential flow, as well as water balance on slopes, causes of surface runoffs, transient water flow in soils, and refractional water flow in layered soils.
SOIL AND WATER Unit System Structure of Soils Retentivity of Water in Soils References PHYSICAL LAWS OF WATER FLOW IN SOILS Darcy's Law Gas-Phase Configuration in Unsaturated Soils Infiltration Steady Water Flow in Soils Transient Water Flow in Soils Appendix: Method of Characteristics References REFRACTION OF WATER FLOW IN SOILS Refraction of Flux Theory of Refraction of Flux Jump Condition Visualization of Refractional Water Flow in Layered Soils Verification of Refraction Theory Refraction and Anisotropy Coefficient Appendix: The Jump Condition and the Finite Element References PREFERENTIAL FLOW Classification of Preferential Flow General Features of Preferential Flow Bypassing Flow Fingering Flow Funneled Flow References WATER FLOW IN SLOPES Water Balance on Slopes Moisture Conditions in Slopes Infiltration into Slopes Causes of Surface Runoff Subsurface Flow of Water in Slopes References WATER FLOW UNDER EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS Temperature Profile and Soil Water Flow in Fields Water Vapor Flow Under a Temperature Gradient Liquid Water Flow Under a Temperature Gradient Observations of Water Flow in Soils Under Temperature Gradients Appendix: Practical Estimation of Vapor Flux References EFFECTS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL FACTORS ON WATER FLOW IN SOILS Typical Change in Permeability Microbiological Effects on Permeability Effects of Microbiological Factors on Water Flow in Natural Soils Effects of Microbiological Factors on Water Flow in Clay Liners of Landfill Sites Microbial Clogging Models Microbial Growth and Substrate Transport Model References WATER REGIMES IN FIELDS WITH VEGETATION Characteristics of Water Flow in Paddy Rice Fields Characteristics of Water Flow in Upland Agricultural Fields Water Balance in Fields With Vegetation Evapotranspiration Soil Water Uptake by Plant Roots Effects of Vegetation on Soil Water Regime References HETEROGENEITY OF SOILS IN FIELDS Heterogeneity Representative Elementary Volume Similar-Media Concept and Scaling Nonsimilar Media Concept and Scaling Spatial Variability and Geostatistics Macropores Appendix: The b-Value Estimation of Campbell's Method References