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About this book
About this book
An introduction that cuts across various disciplines to provide a view of the fundamental concepts of water. It highlights properties and behaviour, natural global processes related to water, molecular structure, speculation on the origin of the world ocean, and many other issues.
Preface; 1. Water and life; 1.1 Water in the biosphere; 1.2 Formation of the earth's watery envelope; 1.3 Water and evolution of life; 1.4 Conclusion; 2. Unusual properties of usual water; 2.1 Milestones of scientific study of water chemistry; 2.2 Molecular structure of water; 2.3 Outstanding chemical properties of water; 2.3.1 Water as a universal solvent; 2.3.2 Self-solution of water and pH index; 2.3.3 Hydration: the formation of watery compounds and minerals; 2.4 Peculiar physical properties of water; 2.4.1 Boiling and freezing points of water; 2.4.2 Latent heat of freezing and boiling; 2.4.3 Evaporation; 2.4.4 Heat capacity; 2.4.5 Thermal expansion of water; 2.4.6 Density; 2.4.7 Viscosity; 2.4.8 Surface tension; 2.4.9 Capillarity; 2.5 The impurities and chemical properties of natural water; 2.5.1 Major dissolved constituents; 2.5.2 Sources of major dissolved constituents; 2.5.3 Minor impurities; 2.5.4 Gaseous content; 2.5.5 Organic substances and microorganisms; 2.5.6 Hardness; 2.5.7 Acidity and alkalinity; 2.6 Physical properties of natural water; 2.7 Chemical analysis of natural water; 2.8 Gaseous state of water; 2.9 Ice, a solid phase of water; 2.10Diversity of natural water; 2.10.1 Fresh water; 2.10.2 Mineral water; 2.10.3 Thermal water; 2.10.4 Seawater; 2.10.5 Industrial water; 2.11 Concluding notes; 3. The behavior of water at rest and in motion; 3.1 Concepts of hydrostatics; 3.1.1 Pressure and head 3.1.2 Absolute, atmospheric, and gauge pressures; 3.1.3 Communicating vessels; 3.1.4 Pascal's principle; 3.1.5 Archimedes' principle; 3.2 Concepts of hydrodynamics; 3.2.1 The concept of continuity of flow; 3.2.2 Torricelli's contribution hydrodynamics; 3.2.3 Bernoulli's principle; 3.2.4 Open-channel flow; 3.2.5 The movement of solid bodies in water; 3.2.6 Reynolds number; 3.2.7 Froude number; 3.3 Practical applications of the principles and concepts of hydromechanics; 3.3.1 Dams; 3.3.2 Siphons; 3.3.3 Water supply systems; 3.3.4 Production of power; 3.3.5 Airfoil and hydrofoil; 3.3.6 Hydraulic mechanisms; 3.3.7 Shipbuilding; 3.4 Conclusion; 4. Invisible flow: the ideas of groundwater hydrology; 4.1 Types of aquifers; 4.2 Springs; 4.2.1 'Artificial springs': leaks from water mains; 4.3 Hydrogeologic properties of geological materials; 4.3.1 Specific yield; 4.3.2 Capillarity; 4.3.3 Water permeability; 4.4 The false velocity of groundwater hydrology; 4.4.1 Relationship between discharge and actual velocity; 4.5 The principal law of groundwater seepage; 4.6 Drainage of groundwater by wells under equilibrium conditions; 4.7 Elasticity of artesian aquifers and inflow into wells under non-equilibrium conditions; 4.7.1 Thei's formula for non-equilibrium inflow into a well; 4.7.2 Estimation of elastic resources of an artesian aquifer; 4.8 Thermolift; 4.8.1 Thermolift and flow test of geothermal wells; 4.8.2 Evaluation of the differential pressure due to the effect of thermolift; 4.8.3 Geysers; 4.8.4 Hydrothermal vents; 4.9 Hydrogeological computations; 4.10 Conclusion; 5. The earth's watery envelope, its circulation and resources; 5.1 Composition of the hydrosphere; 5.1.1 The world ocean; 5.1.2 Water on the land surface; 5.1.3 Water underground; 5.1.4 Water in the atmosphere; 5.2 The hydrologic cycle and fresh water resources; 5.2.1 Hydrologic cycle; 5.2.2 Water budget; 5.2.3 Fresh water resources; 5.2.4 The hydrologic cycle and water pollution; 5.2.5 Control of hydrologic cycle and protection of water resources; 5.3 Conclusion; Concluding remarks; References; Supplementary reading; Index