This volume, the proceedings of an ISSI workshop 21-26 March 1999, Bern, Switzerland summarizes the results from the detection of cosmic rays at the surface and in the lower atmosphere of Earth during the 50 years since the invention of the neutron monitor by John A. Simpson in 1948. The properties of solar and galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere, such as Forbush decreases, modulations by solar and heliosphere parameters, the physical processes that govern them, and their connection to Space Weather, are reviewed. This interdisciplinary compilation provides links between cosmic ray physics, geophysics, terrestrial climate, and human activity and health.
Foreword. Cosmic Rays and Earth -- Introduction; J.W. Bieber, et al. The Cosmic Ray Nucleonic Component: The Invention and Scientific Uses of the Neutron Monitor -- Keynote Lecture; J.A. Simpson. Cosmic Ray Observations Near Earth. Solar Energetic Particles; J.M. Ryan, et al. Coronal Mass Ejections and Forbush Decreases; H.V. Cane. Large Scale Modulation: View From Earth; A. Belov. Neutron Monitor Records in a Broader Historical Context; J. Beer. Particle Scattering by Magnetic Fields; W. Droge. Cosmic Rays in Relation to Space Weather. K. Kudela, et al. Cosmic Rays and Earth's Climate; H. Svensmark. Cosmic Ray Implications for Human Health; M.A. Shea, D.F. Smart. Muon Observations; M.L. Duldig. The Global Neutron Monitor Network. Fifty Years of Cosmic Radiation Data; M.A. Shea, D.F. Smart. Integration of Neutron Monitor Data With Spacecraft Observations: A Historical Perspective; F.B. McDonald. Design and Coordination of Multi-Station International Neutron Monitor Networks; H. Moraal, et al. Magnetospheric Models and Trajectory Computations; D.F. Smart, et al. Neutron Monitor Response Functions; J.M. Clem, L.I. Dorman. Neutron Monitor Design Improvements; P.H. Stoker, et al. Public Access to Neutron Monitor Datasets; R. Pyle. Epilogue. List of Acronyms. Author Index. List of Participants.