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About this book
About this book
The presence of cyanide is a significant issue in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment and management, in remediation of former manufactured gas plant sites and aluminum production waste disposal sites, in treatment and management of residuals from hydrometallurgical gold mining, and in other industrial operations in which cyanide-bearing wastes were produced. The complexity of the chemistry and toxicology of cyanide and the risk it poses in different environmental contexts make its management and remediation extremely challenging. "Cyanide in Water and Soil" is the first book to present the state-of-the-art in managing cyanide across a wide range of industrial and environmental contexts. The book brings together current knowledge and information about cyanide release to and behavior in the environment, and explores how to control or remediate these releases. No other broad-based examination of this topic exists. Exploring the anthropogenic and natural sources of cyanide in the environment, the authors address the full range of issues pertaining to cyanide fate, transport, treatment, and toxicity in water and soil as well as approaches currently used in risk assessment and management. They have developed a careful balance of depth and scope of coverage, providing current references that help readers learn more about topics of particular interest. An array of technologies is available for the treatment of cyanide in surface water and groundwater, wastewaters, and contaminated soils and sludges. These technologies span the gamut of biological, chemical, electrolytic, physical, and thermal treatment processing. Presenting examples of applications of the technologies employed most commonly in municipal and industrial settings, the book is a useful reference tool for engineers, scientists, practitioners, and researchers in academia, industrial organizations, government, and engineering and science consulting firms.
INTRODUCTIONCyanide in HistoryCyanide Chemical StructureCyanide and the Origin of LifeUbiquity of Cyanide Compounds in NatureCyanide in IndustryCyanide Releases to Water and SoilCyanide: Chemistry, Risk and ManagementCyanide RegulationsCyanide Treatment TechnologySummary and ConclusionsReferencesPHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FORMS OF CYANIDEGaseous Forms of CyanideAqueous Forms of CyanideSolid Forms of CyanideSummary and ConclusionsReferencesNATURAL SOURCES OF CYANIDECyanide in Vascular PlantsCyanide in MicroorganismsCyanide in AnimalsCyanide in Forest FiresSummary and ConclusionsReferencesMANUFACTURE AND THE USE OF CYANIDEProduction of Cyanide CompoundsIncidental Industrial Production of CyanideSummary and ConclusionsReferencesPHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND REACTIVITY OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOILFree CyanideMetal Cyanides: Aqueous SpeciesMetal-Cyanides: Solid Phase CompoundsCyanateThiocyanateOrganocyanidesSummary and ConclusionsReferencesBIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOILMicrobial DegradationFungal DegradationPathways for Fungal Degradation of Cyanogenic CompoundsBacterial AssimilationFungal AssimilationBotanical Transformation ProcessesEnvironmental Impacts of Cyanide AssimilationSummary and ConclusionsReferencesANALYSIS OF CYANIDE IN WATERInterferences and PretreatmentsTotal Cyanide Measurement TechniquesWeak Metal-Cyanide ComplexesMetal Cyanide Complex Analysis by Liquid ChormatographyFree Cyanide AnalysisThiocyanate and Cyanate Measurement TechniquesCyanogen Halide AnalysisOrganocyanide Measurement TechniquesComparative Method PerformanceQuality Control Criteria for Measurement of Cyanide in WaterMeasuring Cyanides - A Regulatory DilemmaSummary and ConclusionsReferencesANALYSIS OF CYANIDE IN SOLIDS AND SEMI-SOLIDSDirect Acid DistillationAcid Solution ExtractionNeutral Solution ExtractionAlkaline Solution ExtractionEffect of Extraction Solution pHEffect of Liquid-Solid RatioEffect of Extraction TimeExtraction of Plant and Animal Tissue, and other Semi-Solid MaterialsQuality Control and Method Performance EvaluationSummary and ConclusionsReferencesFATE AND TRANSPORT OF ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN SURFACE WATERSynoptic Review of Cyanide Speciation and ToxicityPrimary Cyanide Fate-Determining Environmental ProcessesPrediction and Assessment of Exposure to CyanideSummary and ConclusionsReferencesFATE AND TRANSPORT OF ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN SOIL AND GROUNDWATERDistribution and Speciation of Cyanide at Industrial SitesImpact of Site Geochemistry on Speciation and Distribution of CyanideImportant Fate Processes for CyanideTransport of Cyanide in Soil and Groundwater at Contaminated SitesSummary and ConclusionsReferencesANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENTWastewater Discharges to Coastal WatersUse of Cyanide for Capturing Live Ree