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Longidoridae and Trichodoridae are the only two families of nematodes proven to be polyphagous root-ectoparasites which can transmit plant viruses. Members of the family Longidoridae commonly include needle and dagger nematodes based on their odontostyle shape—like a needle in the subfamily Longidorinae and a dagger in the subfamily Xiphinematinae. The family Trichodoridae is commonly referred to as "stubby-root" nematodes because feeding by these nematodes can cause a stunted or “stubby” root system. The viruses associated with Longidoridae and Trichodoridae belong to different virus taxa: longidorids vector nepoviruses and trichodorids vector tobraviruses. To date, over 480 species have been described worldwide belonging to six genera, and two subfamilies, in the family Longidoridae and 109 species in six genera in the family Trichodoridae. Of these, 17 species have been reported in New Zealand. Unfortunately, only 12 of the 17 New Zealand species were available for the present study. Therefore, this monograph provides full descriptions and distributions of the 12 species, including seven species from two genera in Longidoridae and five species from three genera in Trichodoridae.