About this book
This book offers a comprehensive collection of robust methods for the detection of pesticide compounds or their metabolites useful in food, environmental, and biological monitoring, and in studies of exposure via food, water, air, and the skin or lungs. The readily reproducible methods range from gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection and other classic detectors, to capillary electrophoresis and immunochemical or radioimmunoassay methods. The authors have focused on extraction and cleanup procedures, in order to develop and optimize more fully automated and miniaturized methods, including solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and on-line tandem liquid chromatography (LC/LC) trace enrichment, among others. The protocols offer step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principles behind the technique, lists of the necessary equipment and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
Part I. Analytical Methodologies to Determine Pesticides and Metabolites in Human Fat Tissues and Body Fluids Analysis of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides in Adipose Tissue Using Using Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Assessment of the Uncertainty of the Method Jose L. Martinez Vidal, Antonia Garrido Frenich, Francisco J. Egea Gonzalez, and Francisco J. Arrebola Liebanas Determination of Pyrethroids in Blood Plasma and Pyrethroid/Pyrethrin Metabolites in Urine by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and High-Resolution GC/MS Gabriele Leng and Wolfgang Gries A Multi-Analyte Method for the Quantification of Current-Use Pesticides in Human Serum or Plasma Using Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Dana B. Barr, Roberto Bravo, John R. Barr, and Larry L. Needham Application of Solid-Phase Disk Extraction Combined with Gas Chromatographic Techniques for the Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Body Fluids Adrian Covaci A Comprehensive Approach for Biological Monitoring of Pesticides in urine using HPLC-MS/MS and GC MS/MS Dana B. Barr, Anders O. Olsson, Roberto Bravo, and Larry L. Needham Urinary Ethylenethiourea as a Biomarker of Exposure to Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates Silvia Fustinoni, Laura Campo, Sarah Birindelli, and Claudio Colosio Analysis of 2,4-Diclorophenoxyacetic acid and 2-Methyl-4-Chloro-Phenoxyacetic Acid in Human Urine Cristina Aprea, Gianfranco Sciarra, Nanda Bozzi, and Liana Lunghini Determination of Herbicides in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-(Electrospray Ionization)-Mass Spectrometry Isabel C. S. F. Jardim, Joseane M. Pozzebon, and Sonia C. N. Queiroz Analysis of Pentachlorophenol and Other Chlorinated Phenols in Biological Samples by Gas Chromatography or Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Ji Y. Zhang Analysis of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Body Fluids of Exposed Subjects Using Radioimmunoassay Dietmar Knopp A High-Throughput Screening Immunochemical Protocol for Biological Exposure Assessment of Chlorophenols in Urine Samples Mikaela Nichkova and M.-Pilar Marco Part II. Assessment of Inhalatory and Potential Dermal Exposure Assessment of Postapplication Exposure to Pesticides in Agriculture Joop J. van Hemmen, Katinka E. van der Jagt, and Derk H. Brouwer Field Study Methods for the Determination of Bystander Exposure to Pesticides C. Richard Glass Determination of Household Insecticides in Indoor Air by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Edith Berger-Preiss and Lutz Elflein Assessment of Dermal and Inhalatory Exposure of Agricultural Workers to Malathion by Using Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Francisco J. Egea Gonzalez, Francisco J. Arrebola Liebanas, and A. Marin Pesticides in Human Fat and Serum Samples Versus Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden Patricia Araque, Ana M. Soto, M. Fatima Olea-Serrano, Carlos Sonnenschein, and Nicolas Olea Part III. Pesticide Analysis in Food Quality Criteria Applied to Pesticide Analysis Antonia Garrido Frenich, Jose L. Martinez Vidal, Francisco J. Egea Gonzalez, and Francisco J. Arrebola Liebanas Immunoassay Methods for Measuring Atrazine and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Foods Jeanette M. Van Emon and Jane C. Chuang Quick, Easy, Effective, Rugged and Safe Approach for Determining Pesticide Residues Steven J. Lehotay Determination of Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Vegetable Oils by Single-Sep Multi-Cartridge Extraction and Cleanup and by Gas Chromotagraphy Alfonso Di Muccio, Anna M. Cicero, Antonella Ausili, and Stefano Di Muccio Multi-Class Pesticide Analysis in Vegetables Using Low-Pressure Gas Chromatography Linked to Tandem Mass Spectrometry Francisco J. Arrebola Liebanas, Francisco J. Egea Gonzalez, and Manuel J. Gonzalez Rodriguez Use of Matrix-Solid Dispersion for Determining Pesticides in Fish and Foods Steve A. Barker Analysis of Fungicides in Fruits and Vegetables by Capillary Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry Yolanda Pico Application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction for Organophosphorus Pesticide Analysis in Grain and Dried Foodstuffs Kevin N. T. Norman and Sean H. W. Panton Application of Microwave-Assisted Extraction for the Analysis of Dithiocarbamates in Food Matrices Euphemia Papadopoulou-Mourkudu, Emmanuil Nikolaos Papadakis, and Zisis Vryzas Enantioselective Determination of a-Hexachlorocyclohexane in Food Samples by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Chia Swee Hong and Shaogang Chu Part IV. Pesticide Analysis in Water Automated Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Screening and Determination of Multi-Class Pesticides in Water Taizou Tsutsumi, Mitsushi Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Kataoka, and Janusz Pawliszyn Analysis of Herbicides in Water by Automated On-Line In-Tube Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled With Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Hiroyuki Kataoka, Kurie Mitani, and Masahiko Takino Coupled Column Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Pesticide Residues Elbert Hogendoorn and Ellen Dijkman On-Line Admicelle-Based Solid Phase Extraction Liquid Chromatography Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Quaternary Amminium Herbicides in Drinking Water Dolores Perez-Bendito, Soledad Rubio, and Fransisco Merino Molecular Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction for the Cleanup of Chlorinated Phenoxyacids from Aqueous Samples Claudio Baggiani and Cristina Giovannoli Automated Trace Analysis Pesticides in Water Euphemia Papadopoulou-Mourkidu, John Patsias, and Anna Koukourikou Gas Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry-Based Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Nine Organotin Compounds in Water Michael G. Ikonomou and Marc P. Fernandez Determination of Triazine Herbicides and Degradation Products in Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Chromatographic Techniques Coupled to Mass Spectrometry Hassan Sabik and Roger Jeannot An Optical Inmunosensors for Pesticide Determination in Natural Waters Sara Rodriguez Mozaz, Maria J. Lopez de Alda, and Damia Barcelo