About this book
The intensive exploration of natural resources has begun to take a heavy toll on the environment, economic models appear to have been worn out, and major cultural and technological transformations are underway. The energy issue is particularly important in the context of the technological and economic transformations that are in progress and which will be consolidated in the near future.
In the search for environmental sustainability, renewable energy is the key. Brazil, with its potential in terms of available agricultural land, excellent weather conditions, and considerable levels of specific technological development, stands out as a target for investment and great opportunity in the sector.
This yearbook maps out the renewable energy sector in Brazil, identifying potential, obstacles, and perspectives. Besides the now traditional ethanol and biodiesel, the book presents a structured and holistic vision of an economic sector that will create profound transformation in the global economy.
Renowned professionals have written technical articles on the role played by biomass, small hydroelectric plants and wind and solar energy in Brazil's energy matrix. Other points, such as logistical challenges and investments in land for greenfield projects are also presented. Information and analysis can also be found on biofuels, carbon credits, and governmental policy on other continents, as well as, finally, energetic analysis.
1. Energy Matrix The evolution of the energy matrix Bioenergy, climate changes and carbon market potential Petroleum outlook EU needs biofuels, but is reluctant to accept the new world paradigms A new variable in land prices formation Map of Brazil Economic and energetic overview / Energy external dependence Primary energy production (renewable x non renewable) / Domestic energy supply Total of primary energy Total of secondary sources Electricity supply and demand Public utility power plants Self production power plants Final energy consumption by source Energy final demand by sector 2. Energy Prices Exchange Rate / Petroleum (Brent) U$$ / Petroleum (WTI) US$ Current average prices of energy sources / Current average prices of energy sources (TEP) / Prices ratio of the energy sources Gasoline (distributor) by state R$ Gasoline (pump) by state R$ Gasoline (distributor) by state US$ Gasoline (pump) by state US$ Hydrous ethanol (distributor) by state R$ Hydrous ethanol (pump) by state R$ Hydrous ethanol (distributor) by state US$ Hydrous ethanol (pump) by state US$ Hydrous ethanol - mill R$ Anhydrous ethanol - mill R$ Hydrous ethanol - mill US$ Anhydrous ethanol - mill US$ Diesel (distributor) by state R$ Diesel (pump) by state R$ Diesel (distributor) by state US$ Diesel (pump) by state US$ NGV (distributor) by state R$ NGV (pump) by state R$ NGV (distributor) by state US$ NGV (pump) by state US$ LPG (distributor) by state R$ LPG (pump) by state R$ LPG (distributor) by state US$ LPG (pump) by state US$ Charcoal by state R$ Charcoal by state US$ Electric energy - average rates - by region R$ Electric energy - average rates - by region US$ 3. Ethanol Overview of the markets of sugar and ethanol Production costs of sugar and ethanol in the 2009/10 harvest Ethanol in Brazil, the vision of the producers Agroindustrial logistics requires information integration United States ethanol limits Ethanol supply and demand / Anhydrous ethanol supply and demand / Hydrous ethanol supply and demand Sugarcane area (IBGE) Sugarcane production (IBGE) Sugarcane yield (IBGE) Sugarcane area (CONAB) Sugarcane production (CONAB) Sugarcane yield (CONAB) Sugarcane production (UNICA) Ethanol production (UNICA) Hydrous ethanol production (UNICA) Anhydrous ethanol production (UNICA) Sugar production (UNICA) Ethanol production mix Gasoline A production by state Gasoline C sales by state Hydrous ethanol sales by state Anhydrous ethanol sales by state Ratio - production/sales - anhydrous ethanol Ratio - production/sales - hydrous ethanol Vehicle registration by fuel type / Motorcycles sales by type of fuel / Number of vehicles converted to NGV Anhydrous ethanol stocks - total and available / Hydrous ethanol stocks - total and available Yearly sugar and ethanol exports - main countries Monthly sugar and ethanol exports Sugarcane prices - SP and PR (mill, farmgate and TRS) R$ Sugarcane prices - SP and PR (mill, farmgate and TRS) US$ Corn area in the US Corn production in the US$ Ethanol - production, sales, stocks and imports in the US$ Corn and ethanol Prices - CBOT / Corn supply and demand in the US (historical and projection) Map - Brazilian sugarcane mills Map - US ethanol mills 4. Biodiesel Lack of raw material should delay the B10 The US biodiesel industry: rends and challenges ahead Is biodiesel a real sustainable solution? Main vegetables feedstock for biodiesel Soybean area and production Cotton area and production Sunflower area and production Castor beans area and production Peanut area and production Palm area and production Tallow potential production / Feedstock use for biodiesel production Soybean supply and demand (grain, meal and oil) Biodiesel production by state Biodiesel production by mill Diesel production by state Biodiesel sales by state Diesel sales by state Yearly exports - biodiesel, soybean grain and soybean oil - main countries Monthly exports - biodiesel, soybean meal and soybean oil Soybean grain prices by state - R$ Soybean grain prices by state - US$ Soybean oil prices by state - R$ Soybean oil prices by state - US$ Cotton seeds prices - R$ Cotton seeds prices - US$ Peanut prices by states - R$ and US$ Sao Paulo Castor bean oil prices - R$ and US$ Sao Paulo tallow prices - R$ and US$ Overview of biodiesel auctions Map - Brazilian biodiesel mills 5. Biogas, vegetable coal, wood and other biomasses Biomass has great potential to grow in energy generation The sugar cane energy is equivalent to three Belo Monte plants Firewood supply and demand Charcoal supply and demand / Coal coke supply and demand Sugarcane bagasse supply and demand / Black liquor supply and demand Biomass consumption by sector / Pine and eucalyptus plantations Firewood production (extraction plant data) Firewood production (forestry data) Round wood production (extraction plant data) Round wood production (forestry data) Charcoal production (extraction plant data) Charcoal production (forestry data) Charcoal consumption by state and segment /Pig-Iron production by state and segment Conventional thermal electric power generation Emergency thermal electric power generation Emergency thermal electric power thermal Thermal electric power generation - Proinfa / Peanut biomass potential production Palm biomass potential production Coconut biomass potential production Sugarcane biomass potential production Forestry biomass potential production Pork Biomass Potential Production Yearly charcoal exports - main countries / Yearly charcoal imports - main countries / Yearly raw wood exports - main countries Monthly charcoal exports / Monthly charcoal imports / Monthly raw wood exports Map - Brazilian biomass plants Map - Thermoelectric power plants in Brazil 6. Other renewable energy sources Small hydropower plants have prospect of continued growth Geotechnology and wind energy Ethanol and hydrogen form a partnership with future in Brazil The good and inexhaustible energy heat that comes form the sun Hydraulic energy supply and demand / Electric power generation - Proinfa - hydro and wind Electric power generation - hydraulic Electric energy natural affluent Main reservoirs useful volume Map - Brazilian wind potential Map - Wind velocity in Brazil Map - Solar radiation variation in Brazil Map - Hydroelectric potential (based on river flow measures) Map -- Hydroelectric power plants and hydrometric stations 7. Directory Hydroelectric power plants ranking Small hydroelectric power plants ranking Biodiesel companies ranking Ethanol mills ranking Company directory
Agra FNP (www.agrafnp.com.br) is the leading business information provider and consultancy in the Brazilian agriculture, livestock, agro-industrial and energy sectors. Founded in 1990 as a consultancy and information service for technical aspects of agricultural and livestock activities in Brazil, it has expanded its activities and client scope to international coverage, offering new information methodologies and macro-economic studies focused on local and international issues. Coming forth from its consultancy, business intelligence and periodicals activities, Agra FNP offers various yearbooks and daily, weekly and monthly newsletters, covering specific crops and livestock activities, land prices, crop economics and commodity prices.