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About this book
About this book
The second edition of "Restoration of Contaminated Aquifers: Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Compounds" incorporates the latest advances in in-situ remediation and natural attenuation, and maintains the comprehensive, accessible structure that made the first edition a classic. The new edition broadens the scope of the first by examining all forms of hydrocarbon contamination. The authors emphasize the remediation of Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) and, Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs). They also address the growing role of natural attenuation. The second edition opens with an improved introduction. There are new sections on site characterization, remediation economics and site closure. And unlike other books on this subject, the new edition offers vital managerial and project management guidance, such as, initial project planning and assessment, a look at remediation economics, and a how-to on project closure and follow-up.Since its initial publication in 1991, "Restoration of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers" has been the established, invaluable reference for environmental professionals and regulators. Its sweeping, yet approachable format is inestimable in the field, in the lab, and in the policy-making arena. "Restoration of Contaminated Aquifers: Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Compounds" will continue to be the guide to the war against petroleum contamination.
INTRODUCTIONThe Nature of HydrocarbonsUnderstanding the Subsurface EnvironmentEvaluation and Development of a Remediation StrategyThe Role of the GeologistThe Role of the EngineerThe Role of the RegulatorReferencesREGULATORY FRAMEWORKIntroductionResource, Conservation and Recovery ActComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability ActDepartment of TransportationClean Water ActSafe Water Drinking ActSpecific State ProgramsReferencesRISK-BASED CORRECTIVE ACTIONSUBSURFACE HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATIONIntroductionGeologic CharacterizationSedimentary Sequences and Facies ArchitectureStructural Style and FrameworkHydrogeologic CharacterizationRegional Hydrogeologic ConsiderationsSite-Specific Hydrogeologic ConsiderationsPumping StrategiesReferencesHYDROCARBON CHEMISTRYIntroductionHydrocarbon TypesTransformation ProcessesDegradation ProcessesReferencesGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION (FORENSIC FINGERPRINTING)IntroductionAPI GravityTrace Metals AnalysisGas ChromatographyIsotope AnalysisSource Determination TechniquesAge Determination TechniquesReferencesFATE AND TRANSPORT PROCESSESIntroductionSubsurface ProcessesOccurrence and Flow of Immiscible LiquidsCapillary Fringe InteractionsSaturated ZoneNONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID CHARACTERIZATIONIntroductionPlume and Pool GeometryNAPL PropertiesActual vs. Apparent Thickness DeterminationVolume DeterminationRecoverabilityRelative Time Frames for RecoveryReferencesREMEDIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR NAPLSIntroductionPassive SystemsActive SystemsNatural AttenuationCoproduced Water Handling ConsiderationsOther TechnologiesReferencesDISSOLVED HYDROCARBONS IN GROUNDWATER REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGIESIntroductionPump-and-TreatAir StrippingAir SpargingBiospargingNatural AttenuationOther TechnologiesReferencesCOPRODUCED WATER HANDLINGIntroductionOil/Water SeparationInorganics RemovalOrganics RemovalTreatment TrainsCost Comparison (Case Study)Disposal OptionsReferencesHYDROCARBON IMPACTED IN-SITU SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIESIntroductionEncapsulationVapor ExtractionAir SpargingSteam Injection and StrippingSoil WashingBioventingBioremediationNatural AttenuationOther TechnologiesReferencesSITE CLOSURE CONSIDERATIONSIntroductionNatural Attenuation vs. No Further ActionParameters for EvaluationWell Abandonment and DestructionReferencesECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONSIntroductionImpacted Soil ConsiderationsNAPL ConsiderationsDissolved Hydrocarbons in Groundwater ConsiderationsReferencesCASE HISTORIESIntroductionVacuum-Enhanced Suction-Lift Well-Point SystemRope Skimming SystemCombined One- and Two-Pump System with ReinjectionNatural AttenuationReferencesCONCLUSIONAppendix A: Glossary of Pertinent Technical and Regulatory TermsAppendix B: Tabulation of Specific Gravity vs. API Gravity