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Academic & Professional Books  Insects & other Invertebrates  Echinoderms

Reproduction and Development in Echinodermata and Prochordata

By: TJ Pandian(Author)
270 pages, 59 b/w illustrations, 75 tables
Publisher: CRC Press
Reproduction and Development in Echinodermata and Prochordata
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  • Reproduction and Development in Echinodermata and Prochordata ISBN: 9780815364726 Hardback Apr 2018 In stock
    £140.00
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About this book

Echinoderms and prochordates occupy a key position in vertebrate evolution. The genomes of sea urchin share 70% homology with humans. Researches on cell cycle in sea urchin and phagocytosis in asteroids have fetched Nobel Prizes. In this context, this book assumes immense importance.

Echinoderms are unique, as their symmetry is bilateral in larvae but pentamerous radial in adults. The latter has eliminated the development of an anterior head and bilateral appendages. Further, the obligate need to face the substratum for locomotion and acquisition of food has eliminated their planktonic and nektonic existence. Egg size, a decisive factor in recruitment, increases with decreasing depths up to 2,000-5,000 m in lecithotrophic asteroids and ophiuroids but remains constant in their planktotrophics. Smaller (< 18 mm) ophiuroids do not produce a lecithotrophic eggs but larger (> 110 mm) asteroids generate planktotrophic eggs only.

Publications on sex ratio of echinoderms indicate the genetic determination of sex at fertilization but those on hybridization, karyotype and ploidy induction do not provide evidence for heterogametism. But the herbivorous echinoids and larvacea with their gonads harboring both germ cells and Nutritive Phagocytes (NPs) have economized the transportation and hormonal costs on gonadal function. Despite the amazing potential just 2 and 3% of echinoderms undergo clonal reproduction and regeneration, respectively. Fission is triggered, when adequate reserve nutrients are accumulated. It is the most prevalent mode of clonal reproduction in holothuroids, asteroids and ophiuroids. However, budding is a more prevalent mode of clonal reproduction in colonial hemichordates and urochordates.

In echinoderms, fission and budding eliminate each other. Similarly, autoregulation of early development eliminates clonal reproduction in echinoids and solitary urochordates. In pterobranchs, thaliaceans and ascidians, the repeated and rapid budding leads to colonial formation. Coloniality imposes reductions in species number and body size, generation time and life span, gonad number and fecundity as well as switching from gonochorism to simultaneous hermaphorditism and oviparity to ovoviviparity/viviparity.

Contents

NON-CHORDATE-DEUTEROSOMIA

ECHINODERMATA
Introduction
      Taxonomy and Structural Diversity
      Distribution, Locomotion and Dispersal
      Population Density and Microhabitats
      Energy Budget and Reproduction
      Gonad Index and Fecundity
      Egg Size and its Implications
      Larval Development and Thyroid Hormones
      Brooding and Viviparity
      Size and Life Span
Fisheries and Aquaculture
      Introduction
      Capture Fisheries
      Aquaculture
Sexual Reproduction
      Introduction
      Sexuality
      Gonochorism
      Parthenogenesis
      Hermaphroditism
      Reproductive Cycle
Asexual Reproduction
      Introduction
      Types and Characteristics
      Fission and Reproduction
      Clonal and Sexual Reproduction
      Induced Fission
      The Trigger
      Clonal Autotomy
      Larval Cloning
      Eggs and Embryos
      Searching Stem Cells
Regeneration
      Introduction
      Incidence and Prevalence
      Induction of Autotomy
      Causes and Consequences
      Growth and Differentiation
      Growth Factors and Genes
Sex Determination
      Introduction
      Species and Fidelity
      Karyotypes and Heteromorphism
      Ploidy Induction
      Genome and Sequencing
Sex Differentiation
      Introduction
      Asteroid Model
      Echinoid Model
      Induction of Spawning
      Endocrine Disruption
      Parasitic Disruption

HEMICHORDATA
Reproductive Biology
      Introduction
      Life Cycles
      Gonads and Consequences
      Regeneration in Enteropneusts

CHORDATE DEUTEROSTOMIA
Cephalochordata
      Introduction
      Reproductive Biology
Urochordata
      Introduction
      Pelagic Tunicates
      Benthic Tunicates
      Germline Lineage
New Findings and Highlights
      Introduction
      Structure and Distribution
      Fecundity, Size and Depth
      Aquaculture: Sea Urchins and Cucumbers
      Intromittent Organ
      Gonad and Hormonal Economy
      Regenerative Potential
      Gonads of Cloners
      Clonal Reproduction
      Autoregulation and Stem Cells
      Cloning and Coloniality

References

Customer Reviews

By: TJ Pandian(Author)
270 pages, 59 b/w illustrations, 75 tables
Publisher: CRC Press
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